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kissat - Man Page

manual page for kissat 3.1.1


usage: kissat [ <option> ... ] [ <dimacs> [ <proof> ] ]

where '<option>' is one of the following common options:


print this list of all command line options


print only reduced list of command line options


force writing proofs (to existing CNF alike file)


do not print satisfying assignment


suppress all messages (see also '--quiet')


print all statistics (see also '--statistics')


increase verbose level (see also '--verbose')

Further '<option>' can be one of the following less frequent options:


print solver information


print build information


use colors (default if connected to terminal)


no colors (default if not connected to terminal)


print compiler information


print copyright information


same as '-f' (force writing proof)


print 'git' identifier (SHA-1 hash)


print option range list


relaxed parsing (ignore DIMACS header)


stricter parsing (no empty header lines)


print version

The following solving limits can be enforced:




Satisfying assignments have by default values for all variables unless '--partial' is specified, then only values are printed for variables which are necessary to satisfy the formula.

The following predefined 'configurations' (option settings) are supported:


basic CDCL solving ('--plain' but no restarts, minimize, reduce)


default configuration


plain CDCL solving without advanced techniques


target satisfiable instances ('--target=2 --restartint=50')


target unsatisfiable instances ('--stable=0')

Or '<option>' is one of the following long options:


extract and eliminate and gates [true]


binary clause backbone (2=eager) [1]


effort in per mille [20]


maximum backbone rounds [1e3]


backbone rounds limit [100]


enable variable bumping [true]


bump reason side literals too [true]


relative reason literals limit [10]


decision rate limit [10]


allow chronological backtracking [true]


maximum jumped over levels [100]


enable compacting garbage collection [true]


compact inactive limit (in percent) [10]


per mille scores decay [50]


how many cores [2]


extract general definitions [true]


kitten ticks limits [1e6]


usable defragmentation limit in percent [75]


size defragmentation limit [2^18]


bounded variable elimination (BVE) [true]


maximum elimination bound [16]


elimination clause size limit [100]


effort in per mille [100]


initial elimination interval [500]


base elimination interval [500]


elimination occurrence limit [2e3]


elimination rounds limit [2]


fast exponential moving average window [33]


slow exponential moving average window [1e5]


extract and eliminate equivalence gates [true]


extract gates in variable elimination [true]


flush proof lines immediately [false]


force initial phase [false]


forward subsumption in BVE [true]


effort in per mille [100]


extract and eliminate if-then-else gates [true]


enable incremental solving [false]


minimum absolute effort in millions [10]


learned clause minimization [true]


minimization depth [1e3]


count ticks in minimize and shrink [true]


initial focused conflicts limit [1e3]


focused conflicts interval [1e3]


on-the-fly strengthening [true]


initial decision phase [true]


enable phase saving [true]


enable probing [true]


initial probing interval [100]


probing interval [100]


profile level [2]


promote clauses [true]


disable all messages [false]


random decisions [true]


random decisions in focused mode [true]


random decisions interval [500]


initial random decisions interval [500]


random conflicts length [10]


random decisions in stable mode [false]


learned clause reduction [true]


reduce fraction in percent [75]


initial reduce interval [1e3]


base reduce interval [1e3]


stable reluctant doubling restarting [true]


reluctant interval [2^10]


reluctant limit (0=unlimited) [2^20]


reinitialization of decision phases [true]


initial rephase interval [1e3]


base rephase interval [1e3]


enable restarts [true]


base restart interval [1]


fast/slow margin in percent [10]


random seed [0]


learned clauses (1=bin,2=lrg,3=rec) [3]


enable probing and elimination [true]


enable stable search mode [1]


print complete statistics [false]


equivalent literal substitution [true]


effort in per mille [10]


maximum substitution rounds [2]


subsumption clause size limit [1e3]


subsumption occurrence limit [1e3]


enable SAT sweeping [true]


environment clauses [2^10]


environment depth [2]


effort in per mille [100]


flipping rounds [1]


maximum environment clauses [2^15]


maximum environment depth [3]


maximum environment variables [2^13]


environment variables [2^8]


target phases (1=stable,2=focused) [1]


learned clause tier one glue limit [2]


learned clause tier two glue limit [6]


transitive reduction of binary clauses [true]


effort in per mille [20]


keep transitivity candidates [true]


tumbled external indices order [true]


verbosity level [0]


vivify clauses [true]


effort in per mille [100]


relative tier1 effort [1]


relative tier1 effort [1]


relative tier2 effort [1]


effort in per mille [50]


initial local search [false]


initialize phases by unit propagation [true]

Furthermore '<dimacs>' is the input file in DIMACS format. The solver reads from '<stdin>' if '<dimacs>' is unspecified. If the path has a '.bz2', '.gz', '.lzma', '7z' or '.xz' suffix then the solver tries to find a corresponding decompression tool ('bzip2', 'gzip', 'lzma', '7z', or 'xz') to decompress the input file on-the-fly after checking that the input file has the correct format (starts with the corresponding signature bytes).

If '<proof>' is specified then a proof trace is written to the given file.  If the file name is '-' then the proof is written to '<stdout>'. In this case the ASCII version of the DRAT format is used.  For real files the binary proof format is used unless '--no-binary' is specified.

Writing of compressed proof files follows the same principle as reading compressed files. The compression format is based on the file suffix and it is checked that the corresponding compression utility can be found.


March 2024 kissat 3.1.1