kdig man page

kdig — Advanced DNS lookup utility

Synopsis

kdig [common-settings] [query [settings]]...

kdig -h

Description

This utility sends one or more DNS queries to a nameserver. Each query can have individual settings, or it can be specified globally via common-settings, which must precede query specification.

Parameters

query

name | -q name | -x address | -G tapfile

common-settings, settings

[query_class] [query_type] [@server]... [options]

name

Is a domain name that is to be looked up.

server

Is a domain name or an IPv4 or IPv6 address of the nameserver to send a query to. An additional port can be specified using address:port ([address]:port for IPv6 address), address@port, or address#port notation. If no server is specified, the servers from /etc/resolv.conf are used.

If no arguments are provided, kdig sends NS query for the root zone.

Query classes

A query_class can be either a DNS class name (IN, CH) or generic class specification CLASSXXXXX where XXXXX is a corresponding decimal class number. The default query class is IN.

Query types

A query_type can be either a DNS resource record type (A, AAAA, NS, SOA, DNSKEY, ANY, etc.) or one of the following:

TYPEXXXXX

Generic query type specification where XXXXX is a corresponding decimal type number.

AXFR

Full zone transfer request.

IXFR=serial

Incremental zone transfer request for specified starting SOA serial number.

NOTIFY=serial

Notify message with a SOA serial hint specified.

NOTIFY

Notify message with a SOA serial hint unspecified.

The default query type is A.

Options

-4

Use the IPv4 protocol only.

-6

Use the IPv6 protocol only.

-b address

Set the source IP address of the query to address. The address must be a valid address for local interface or :: or 0.0.0.0. An optional port can be specified in the same format as the server value.

-c class

An explicit query_class specification. See possible values above.

-d

Enable debug messages.

-h, --help

Print the program help.

-k keyfile

Use the TSIG key stored in a file keyfile to authenticate the request. The file must contain the key in the same format as accepted by the -y option.

-p port

Set the nameserver port number or service name to send a query to. The default port is 53.

-q name

Set the query name. An explicit variant of name specification. If no name is provided, empty question section is set.

-t type

An explicit query_type specification. See possible values above.

-V, --version

Print the program version.

-x address

Send a reverse (PTR) query for IPv4 or IPv6 address. The correct name, class and type is set automatically.

-y [alg:]name:key

Use the TSIG key named name to authenticate the request. The alg part specifies the algorithm (the default is hmac-sha256) and key specifies the shared secret encoded in Base64.

-E tapfile

Export a dnstap trace of the query and response messages received to the file tapfile.

-G tapfile

Generate message output from a previously saved dnstap file tapfile.

+[no]multiline

Wrap long records to more lines and improve human readability.

+[no]short

Show record data only.

+[no]generic

Use the generic representation format when printing resource record types and data.

+[no]crypto

Display the DNSSEC keys and signatures values in hexdump, instead of omitting them.

+[no]aaflag

Set the AA flag.

+[no]tcflag

Set the TC flag.

+[no]rdflag

Set the RD flag.

+[no]recurse

Same as +[no]rdflag

+[no]raflag

Set the RA flag.

+[no]zflag

Set the zero flag bit.

+[no]adflag

Set the AD flag.

+[no]cdflag

Set the CD flag.

+[no]dnssec

Set the DO flag.

+[no]all

Show all packet sections.

+[no]qr

Show the query packet.

+[no]header

Show the packet header.

+[no]opt

Show the EDNS pseudosection.

+[no]question

Show the question section.

+[no]answer

Show the answer section.

+[no]authority

Show the authority section.

+[no]additional

Show the additional section.

+[no]tsig

Show the TSIG pseudosection.

+[no]stats

Show trailing packet statistics.

+[no]class

Show the DNS class.

+[no]ttl

Show the TTL value.

+[no]tcp

Use the TCP protocol (default is UDP for standard query and TCP for AXFR/IXFR).

+[no]fastopen

Use TCP Fast Open (default with TCP).

+[no]ignore

Don't use TCP automatically if a truncated reply is received.

+[no]tls

Use TLS with the Opportunistic privacy profile (RFC 7858#section-4.1).

+[no]tls-ca[=FILE]

Use TLS with a certificate validation. Certification authority certificates are loaded from the specified PEM file (default is system certificate storage if no argument is provided). Can be specified multiple times. If the +tls-hostname option is not provided, the name of the target server (if specified) is used for strict authentication.

+[no]tls-pin=BASE64

Use TLS with the Out-of-Band key-pinned privacy profile (RFC 7858#section-4.2). The PIN must be a Base64 encoded SHA-256 hash of the X.509 SubjectPublicKeyInfo. Can be specified multiple times.

+[no]tls-hostname=STR

Use TLS with a remote server hostname check.

+[no]nsid

Request the nameserver identifier (NSID).

+[no]bufsize=B

Set EDNS buffer size in bytes (default is 512 bytes).

+[no]padding[=B]

Use EDNS(0) padding option to pad queries, optionally to a specific size. The default is to pad queries with a sensible amount when using +tls, and not to pad at all when queries are sent without TLS.  With no argument (i.e., just +padding) pad every query with a sensible amount regardless of the use of TLS. With +nopadding, never pad.

+[no]alignment[=B]

Align the query to B-byte-block message using the EDNS(0) padding option (default is no or 128 if no argument is specified).

+[no]subnet=SUBN

Set EDNS(0) client subnet SUBN=addr/prefix.

+[no]edns[=N]

Use EDNS version (default is 0).

+[no]time=T

Set the wait-for-reply interval in seconds (default is 5 seconds). This timeout applies to each query attempt.

+[no]retry=N

Set the number (>=0) of UDP retries (default is 2). This doesn't apply to AXFR/IXFR.

+[no]cookie=HEX

Attach EDNS(0) cookie to the query.

+[no]badcookie

Repeat a query with the correct cookie.

+[no]ednsopt[=CODE[:HEX]]

Send custom EDNS option. The CODE is EDNS option code in decimal, HEX is an optional hex encoded string to use as EDNS option value. This argument can be used multiple times. +noednsopt clears all EDNS options specified by +ednsopt.

+noidn

Disable the IDN transformation to ASCII and vice versa. IDNA2003 support depends on libidn availability during project building!

Notes

Options -k and -y can not be used simultaneously.

Dnssec-keygen keyfile format is not supported. Use keymgr(8) instead.

Examples

1.

Get A records for example.com:

$ kdig example.com A
2.

Perform AXFR for zone example.com from the server 192.0.2.1:

$ kdig example.com -t AXFR @192.0.2.1
3.

Get A records for example.com from 192.0.2.1 and reverse lookup for address 2001:DB8::1 from 192.0.2.2. Both using the TCP protocol:

$ kdig +tcp example.com -t A @192.0.2.1 -x 2001:DB8::1 @192.0.2.2
4.

Get SOA record for example.com, use TLS, use system certificates, check for specified hostname, check for certificate pin, and print additional debug info:

$ kdig -d @185.49.141.38 +tls-ca +tls-host=getdnsapi.net \
  +tls-pin=foxZRnIh9gZpWnl+zEiKa0EJ2rdCGroMWm02gaxSc9S= soa example.com

Files

/etc/resolv.conf

See Also

khost(1), knsupdate(1), keymgr(8).

Author

CZ.NIC Labs <http://www.knot-dns.cz>

Referenced By

khost(1), knsupdate(1).

2018-08-14 2.7.1 Knot DNS