hg man page

hg — Mercurial source code management system

Synopsis

hg command [option]... [argument]...

Description

The hg command provides a command line interface to the Mercurial system.

Command Elements

files...

indicates one or more filename or relative path filenames; see File Name Patterns for information on pattern matching

path

indicates a path on the local machine

revision

indicates a changeset which can be specified as a changeset revision number, a tag, or a unique substring of the changeset hash value

repository path

either the pathname of a local repository or the URI of a remote repository.

Options

-R,--repository <REPO>

repository root directory or name of overlay bundle file

--cwd <DIR>

change working directory

-y, --noninteractive

do not prompt, automatically pick the first choice for all prompts

-q, --quiet

suppress output

-v, --verbose

enable additional output

--color <TYPE>

when to colorize (boolean, always, auto, never, or debug)

--config <CONFIG[+]>

set/override config option (use 'section.name=value')

--debug

enable debugging output

--debugger

start debugger

--encoding <ENCODE>

set the charset encoding (default: UTF-8)

--encodingmode <MODE>

set the charset encoding mode (default: strict)

--traceback

always print a traceback on exception

--time

time how long the command takes

--profile

print command execution profile

--version

output version information and exit

-h, --help

display help and exit

--hidden

consider hidden changesets

--pager <TYPE>

when to paginate (boolean, always, auto, or never) (default: auto)

[+] marked option can be specified multiple times

Commands

add

add the specified files on the next commit:

hg add [OPTION]... [FILE]...

Schedule files to be version controlled and added to the repository.

The files will be added to the repository at the next commit. To undo an add before that, see hg forget.

If no names are given, add all files to the repository (except files matching .hgignore).

Examples:

  • New (unknown) files are added automatically by hg add:

    $ ls
    foo.c
    $ hg status
    ? foo.c
    $ hg add
    adding foo.c
    $ hg status
    A foo.c
  • Specific files to be added can be specified:

    $ ls
    bar.c  foo.c
    $ hg status
    ? bar.c
    ? foo.c
    $ hg add bar.c
    $ hg status
    A bar.c
    ? foo.c

Returns 0 if all files are successfully added.

Options:

-I,--include <PATTERN[+]>

include names matching the given patterns

-X,--exclude <PATTERN[+]>

exclude names matching the given patterns

-S, --subrepos

recurse into subrepositories

-n, --dry-run

do not perform actions, just print output

[+] marked option can be specified multiple times

addremove

add all new files, delete all missing files:

hg addremove [OPTION]... [FILE]...

Add all new files and remove all missing files from the repository.

Unless names are given, new files are ignored if they match any of the patterns in .hgignore. As with add, these changes take effect at the next commit.

Use the -s/--similarity option to detect renamed files. This option takes a percentage between 0 (disabled) and 100 (files must be identical) as its parameter. With a parameter greater than 0, this compares every removed file with every added file and records those similar enough as renames. Detecting renamed files this way can be expensive. After using this option, hg status -C can be used to check which files were identified as moved or renamed. If not specified, -s/--similarity defaults to 100 and only renames of identical files are detected.

Examples:

  • A number of files (bar.c and foo.c) are new, while foobar.c has been removed (without using hg remove) from the repository:

    $ ls
    bar.c foo.c
    $ hg status
    ! foobar.c
    ? bar.c
    ? foo.c
    $ hg addremove
    adding bar.c
    adding foo.c
    removing foobar.c
    $ hg status
    A bar.c
    A foo.c
    R foobar.c
  • A file foobar.c was moved to foo.c without using hg rename. Afterwards, it was edited slightly:

    $ ls
    foo.c
    $ hg status
    ! foobar.c
    ? foo.c
    $ hg addremove --similarity 90
    removing foobar.c
    adding foo.c
    recording removal of foobar.c as rename to foo.c (94% similar)
    $ hg status -C
    A foo.c
      foobar.c
    R foobar.c

Returns 0 if all files are successfully added.

Options:

-s,--similarity <SIMILARITY>

guess renamed files by similarity (0<=s<=100)

-S, --subrepos

recurse into subrepositories

-I,--include <PATTERN[+]>

include names matching the given patterns

-X,--exclude <PATTERN[+]>

exclude names matching the given patterns

-n, --dry-run

do not perform actions, just print output

[+] marked option can be specified multiple times

annotate

show changeset information by line for each file:

hg annotate [-r REV] [-f] [-a] [-u] [-d] [-n] [-c] [-l] FILE...

List changes in files, showing the revision id responsible for each line.

This command is useful for discovering when a change was made and by whom.

If you include --file, --user, or --date, the revision number is suppressed unless you also include --number.

Without the -a/--text option, annotate will avoid processing files it detects as binary. With -a, annotate will annotate the file anyway, although the results will probably be neither useful nor desirable.

Returns 0 on success.

Options:

-r,--rev <REV>

annotate the specified revision

--follow

follow copies/renames and list the filename (DEPRECATED)

--no-follow

don't follow copies and renames

-a, --text

treat all files as text

-u, --user

list the author (long with -v)

-f, --file

list the filename

-d, --date

list the date (short with -q)

-n, --number

list the revision number (default)

-c, --changeset

list the changeset

-l, --line-number

show line number at the first appearance

-w, --ignore-all-space

ignore white space when comparing lines

-b, --ignore-space-change

ignore changes in the amount of white space

-B, --ignore-blank-lines

ignore changes whose lines are all blank

-I,--include <PATTERN[+]>

include names matching the given patterns

-X,--exclude <PATTERN[+]>

exclude names matching the given patterns

-T,--template <TEMPLATE>

display with template (EXPERIMENTAL)

[+] marked option can be specified multiple times

aliases: blame

archive

create an unversioned archive of a repository revision:

hg archive [OPTION]... DEST

By default, the revision used is the parent of the working directory; use -r/--rev to specify a different revision.

The archive type is automatically detected based on file extension (to override, use -t/--type).

Examples:

  • create a zip file containing the 1.0 release:

    hg archive -r 1.0 project-1.0.zip
  • create a tarball excluding .hg files:

    hg archive project.tar.gz -X ".hg*"

Valid types are:

files

a directory full of files (default)

tar

tar archive, uncompressed

tbz2

tar archive, compressed using bzip2

tgz

tar archive, compressed using gzip

uzip

zip archive, uncompressed

zip

zip archive, compressed using deflate

The exact name of the destination archive or directory is given using a format string; see hg help export for details.

Each member added to an archive file has a directory prefix prepended. Use -p/--prefix to specify a format string for the prefix. The default is the basename of the archive, with suffixes removed.

Returns 0 on success.

Options:

--no-decode

do not pass files through decoders

-p,--prefix <PREFIX>

directory prefix for files in archive

-r,--rev <REV>

revision to distribute

-t,--type <TYPE>

type of distribution to create

-S, --subrepos

recurse into subrepositories

-I,--include <PATTERN[+]>

include names matching the given patterns

-X,--exclude <PATTERN[+]>

exclude names matching the given patterns

[+] marked option can be specified multiple times

backout

reverse effect of earlier changeset:

hg backout [OPTION]... [-r] REV

Prepare a new changeset with the effect of REV undone in the current working directory. If no conflicts were encountered, it will be committed immediately.

If REV is the parent of the working directory, then this new changeset is committed automatically (unless --no-commit is specified).

Note

hg backout cannot be used to fix either an unwanted or incorrect merge.

Examples:

  • Reverse the effect of the parent of the working directory. This backout will be committed immediately:

    hg backout -r .
  • Reverse the effect of previous bad revision 23:

    hg backout -r 23
  • Reverse the effect of previous bad revision 23 and leave changes uncommitted:

    hg backout -r 23 --no-commit
    hg commit -m "Backout revision 23"

By default, the pending changeset will have one parent, maintaining a linear history. With --merge, the pending changeset will instead have two parents: the old parent of the working directory and a new child of REV that simply undoes REV.

Before version 1.7, the behavior without --merge was equivalent to specifying --merge followed by hg update --clean . to cancel the merge and leave the child of REV as a head to be merged separately.

See hg help dates for a list of formats valid for -d/--date.

See hg help revert for a way to restore files to the state of another revision.

Returns 0 on success, 1 if nothing to backout or there are unresolved files.

Options:

--merge

merge with old dirstate parent after backout

--commit

commit if no conflicts were encountered (DEPRECATED)

--no-commit

do not commit

--parent <REV>

parent to choose when backing out merge (DEPRECATED)

-r,--rev <REV>

revision to backout

-e, --edit

invoke editor on commit messages

-t,--tool <VALUE>

specify merge tool

-I,--include <PATTERN[+]>

include names matching the given patterns

-X,--exclude <PATTERN[+]>

exclude names matching the given patterns

-m,--message <TEXT>

use text as commit message

-l,--logfile <FILE>

read commit message from file

-d,--date <DATE>

record the specified date as commit date

-u,--user <USER>

record the specified user as committer

[+] marked option can be specified multiple times

bisect

subdivision search of changesets:

hg bisect [-gbsr] [-U] [-c CMD] [REV]

This command helps to find changesets which introduce problems. To use, mark the earliest changeset you know exhibits the problem as bad, then mark the latest changeset which is free from the problem as good. Bisect will update your working directory to a revision for testing (unless the -U/--noupdate option is specified). Once you have performed tests, mark the working directory as good or bad, and bisect will either update to another candidate changeset or announce that it has found the bad revision.

As a shortcut, you can also use the revision argument to mark a revision as good or bad without checking it out first.

If you supply a command, it will be used for automatic bisection. The environment variable HG_NODE will contain the ID of the changeset being tested. The exit status of the command will be used to mark revisions as good or bad: status 0 means good, 125 means to skip the revision, 127 (command not found) will abort the bisection, and any other non-zero exit status means the revision is bad.

Some examples:

  • start a bisection with known bad revision 34, and good revision 12:

    hg bisect --bad 34
    hg bisect --good 12
  • advance the current bisection by marking current revision as good or bad:

    hg bisect --good
    hg bisect --bad
  • mark the current revision, or a known revision, to be skipped (e.g. if that revision is not usable because of another issue):

    hg bisect --skip
    hg bisect --skip 23
  • skip all revisions that do not touch directories foo or bar:

    hg bisect --skip "!( file('path:foo') & file('path:bar') )"
  • forget the current bisection:

    hg bisect --reset
  • use 'make && make tests' to automatically find the first broken revision:

    hg bisect --reset
    hg bisect --bad 34
    hg bisect --good 12
    hg bisect --command "make && make tests"
  • see all changesets whose states are already known in the current bisection:

    hg log -r "bisect(pruned)"
  • see the changeset currently being bisected (especially useful if running with -U/--noupdate):

    hg log -r "bisect(current)"
  • see all changesets that took part in the current bisection:

    hg log -r "bisect(range)"
  • you can even get a nice graph:

    hg log --graph -r "bisect(range)"

See hg help revisions.bisect for more about the bisect() predicate.

Returns 0 on success.

Options:

-r, --reset

reset bisect state

-g, --good

mark changeset good

-b, --bad

mark changeset bad

-s, --skip

skip testing changeset

-e, --extend

extend the bisect range

-c,--command <CMD>

use command to check changeset state

-U, --noupdate

do not update to target

bookmarks

create a new bookmark or list existing bookmarks:

hg bookmarks [OPTIONS]... [NAME]...

Bookmarks are labels on changesets to help track lines of development. Bookmarks are unversioned and can be moved, renamed and deleted. Deleting or moving a bookmark has no effect on the associated changesets.

Creating or updating to a bookmark causes it to be marked as 'active'. The active bookmark is indicated with a '*'. When a commit is made, the active bookmark will advance to the new commit. A plain hg update will also advance an active bookmark, if possible. Updating away from a bookmark will cause it to be deactivated.

Bookmarks can be pushed and pulled between repositories (see hg help push and hg help pull). If a shared bookmark has diverged, a new 'divergent bookmark' of the form 'name@path' will be created. Using hg merge will resolve the divergence.

A bookmark named '@' has the special property that hg clone will check it out by default if it exists.

Examples:

  • create an active bookmark for a new line of development:

    hg book new-feature
  • create an inactive bookmark as a place marker:

    hg book -i reviewed
  • create an inactive bookmark on another changeset:

    hg book -r .^ tested
  • rename bookmark turkey to dinner:

    hg book -m turkey dinner
  • move the '@' bookmark from another branch:

    hg book -f @

Options:

-f, --force

force

-r,--rev <REV>

revision for bookmark action

-d, --delete

delete a given bookmark

-m,--rename <OLD>

rename a given bookmark

-i, --inactive

mark a bookmark inactive

-T,--template <TEMPLATE>

display with template (EXPERIMENTAL)

aliases: bookmark

branch

set or show the current branch name:

hg branch [-fC] [NAME]
Note

Branch names are permanent and global. Use hg bookmark to create a light-weight bookmark instead. See hg help glossary for more information about named branches and bookmarks.

With no argument, show the current branch name. With one argument, set the working directory branch name (the branch will not exist in the repository until the next commit). Standard practice recommends that primary development take place on the 'default' branch.

Unless -f/--force is specified, branch will not let you set a branch name that already exists.

Use -C/--clean to reset the working directory branch to that of the parent of the working directory, negating a previous branch change.

Use the command hg update to switch to an existing branch. Use hg commit --close-branch to mark this branch head as closed. When all heads of a branch are closed, the branch will be considered closed.

Returns 0 on success.

Options:

-f, --force

set branch name even if it shadows an existing branch

-C, --clean

reset branch name to parent branch name

branches

list repository named branches:

hg branches [-c]

List the repository's named branches, indicating which ones are inactive. If -c/--closed is specified, also list branches which have been marked closed (see hg commit --close-branch).

Use the command hg update to switch to an existing branch.

Returns 0.

Options:

-a, --active

show only branches that have unmerged heads (DEPRECATED)

-c, --closed

show normal and closed branches

-T,--template <TEMPLATE>

display with template (EXPERIMENTAL)

bundle

create a bundle file:

hg bundle [-f] [-t BUNDLESPEC] [-a] [-r REV]... [--base REV]... FILE [DEST]

Generate a bundle file containing data to be added to a repository.

To create a bundle containing all changesets, use -a/--all (or --base null). Otherwise, hg assumes the destination will have all the nodes you specify with --base parameters. Otherwise, hg will assume the repository has all the nodes in destination, or default-push/default if no destination is specified.

You can change bundle format with the -t/--type option. See hg help bundlespec for documentation on this format. By default, the most appropriate format is used and compression defaults to bzip2.

The bundle file can then be transferred using conventional means and applied to another repository with the unbundle or pull command. This is useful when direct push and pull are not available or when exporting an entire repository is undesirable.

Applying bundles preserves all changeset contents including permissions, copy/rename information, and revision history.

Returns 0 on success, 1 if no changes found.

Options:

-f, --force

run even when the destination is unrelated

-r,--rev <REV[+]>

a changeset intended to be added to the destination

-b,--branch <BRANCH[+]>

a specific branch you would like to bundle

--base <REV[+]>

a base changeset assumed to be available at the destination

-a, --all

bundle all changesets in the repository

-t,--type <TYPE>

bundle compression type to use (default: bzip2)

-e,--ssh <CMD>

specify ssh command to use

--remotecmd <CMD>

specify hg command to run on the remote side

--insecure

do not verify server certificate (ignoring web.cacerts config)

[+] marked option can be specified multiple times

cat

output the current or given revision of files:

hg cat [OPTION]... FILE...

Print the specified files as they were at the given revision. If no revision is given, the parent of the working directory is used.

Output may be to a file, in which case the name of the file is given using a format string. The formatting rules as follows:

%%

literal "%" character

%s

basename of file being printed

%d

dirname of file being printed, or '.' if in repository root

%p

root-relative path name of file being printed

%H

changeset hash (40 hexadecimal digits)

%R

changeset revision number

%h

short-form changeset hash (12 hexadecimal digits)

%r

zero-padded changeset revision number

%b

basename of the exporting repository

Returns 0 on success.

Options:

-o,--output <FORMAT>

print output to file with formatted name

-r,--rev <REV>

print the given revision

--decode

apply any matching decode filter

-I,--include <PATTERN[+]>

include names matching the given patterns

-X,--exclude <PATTERN[+]>

exclude names matching the given patterns

[+] marked option can be specified multiple times

clone

make a copy of an existing repository:

hg clone [OPTION]... SOURCE [DEST]

Create a copy of an existing repository in a new directory.

If no destination directory name is specified, it defaults to the basename of the source.

The location of the source is added to the new repository's .hg/hgrc file, as the default to be used for future pulls.

Only local paths and ssh:// URLs are supported as destinations. For ssh:// destinations, no working directory or .hg/hgrc will be created on the remote side.

If the source repository has a bookmark called '@' set, that revision will be checked out in the new repository by default.

To check out a particular version, use -u/--update, or -U/--noupdate to create a clone with no working directory.

To pull only a subset of changesets, specify one or more revisions identifiers with -r/--rev or branches with -b/--branch. The resulting clone will contain only the specified changesets and their ancestors. These options (or 'clone src#rev dest') imply --pull, even for local source repositories.

Note

Specifying a tag will include the tagged changeset but not the changeset containing the tag.

For efficiency, hardlinks are used for cloning whenever the source and destination are on the same filesystem (note this applies only to the repository data, not to the working directory). Some filesystems, such as AFS, implement hardlinking incorrectly, but do not report errors. In these cases, use the --pull option to avoid hardlinking.

In some cases, you can clone repositories and the working directory using full hardlinks with

$ cp -al REPO REPOCLONE

This is the fastest way to clone, but it is not always safe. The operation is not atomic (making sure REPO is not modified during the operation is up to you) and you have to make sure your editor breaks hardlinks (Emacs and most Linux Kernel tools do so). Also, this is not compatible with certain extensions that place their metadata under the .hg directory, such as mq.

Mercurial will update the working directory to the first applicable revision from this list:

a.

null if -U or the source repository has no changesets

b.

if -u . and the source repository is local, the first parent of the source repository's working directory

c.

the changeset specified with -u (if a branch name, this means the latest head of that branch)

d.

the changeset specified with -r

e.

the tipmost head specified with -b

f.

the tipmost head specified with the url#branch source syntax

g.

the revision marked with the '@' bookmark, if present

h.

the tipmost head of the default branch

i.

tip

When cloning from servers that support it, Mercurial may fetch pre-generated data from a server-advertised URL. When this is done, hooks operating on incoming changesets and changegroups may fire twice, once for the bundle fetched from the URL and another for any additional data not fetched from this URL. In addition, if an error occurs, the repository may be rolled back to a partial clone. This behavior may change in future releases. See hg help -e clonebundles for more.

Examples:

  • clone a remote repository to a new directory named hg/:

    hg clone https://www.mercurial-scm.org/repo/hg/
  • create a lightweight local clone:

    hg clone project/ project-feature/
  • clone from an absolute path on an ssh server (note double-slash):

    hg clone ssh://user@server//home/projects/alpha/
  • do a high-speed clone over a LAN while checking out a specified version:

    hg clone --uncompressed http://server/repo -u 1.5
  • create a repository without changesets after a particular revision:

    hg clone -r 04e544 experimental/ good/
  • clone (and track) a particular named branch:

    hg clone https://www.mercurial-scm.org/repo/hg/#stable

See hg help urls for details on specifying URLs.

Returns 0 on success.

Options:

-U, --noupdate

the clone will include an empty working directory (only a repository)

-u,--updaterev <REV>

revision, tag, or branch to check out

-r,--rev <REV[+]>

include the specified changeset

-b,--branch <BRANCH[+]>

clone only the specified branch

--pull

use pull protocol to copy metadata

--uncompressed

use uncompressed transfer (fast over LAN)

-e,--ssh <CMD>

specify ssh command to use

--remotecmd <CMD>

specify hg command to run on the remote side

--insecure

do not verify server certificate (ignoring web.cacerts config)

[+] marked option can be specified multiple times

commit

commit the specified files or all outstanding changes:

hg commit [OPTION]... [FILE]...

Commit changes to the given files into the repository. Unlike a centralized SCM, this operation is a local operation. See hg push for a way to actively distribute your changes.

If a list of files is omitted, all changes reported by hg status will be committed.

If you are committing the result of a merge, do not provide any filenames or -I/-X filters.

If no commit message is specified, Mercurial starts your configured editor where you can enter a message. In case your commit fails, you will find a backup of your message in .hg/last-message.txt.

The --close-branch flag can be used to mark the current branch head closed. When all heads of a branch are closed, the branch will be considered closed and no longer listed.

The --amend flag can be used to amend the parent of the working directory with a new commit that contains the changes in the parent in addition to those currently reported by hg status, if there are any. The old commit is stored in a backup bundle in .hg/strip-backup (see hg help bundle and hg help unbundle on how to restore it).

Message, user and date are taken from the amended commit unless specified. When a message isn't specified on the command line, the editor will open with the message of the amended commit.

It is not possible to amend public changesets (see hg help phases) or changesets that have children.

See hg help dates for a list of formats valid for -d/--date.

Returns 0 on success, 1 if nothing changed.

Examples:

  • commit all files ending in .py:

    hg commit --include "set:**.py"
  • commit all non-binary files:

    hg commit --exclude "set:binary()"
  • amend the current commit and set the date to now:

    hg commit --amend --date now

Options:

-A, --addremove

mark new/missing files as added/removed before committing

--close-branch

mark a branch head as closed

--amend

amend the parent of the working directory

-s, --secret

use the secret phase for committing

-e, --edit

invoke editor on commit messages

-i, --interactive

use interactive mode

-I,--include <PATTERN[+]>

include names matching the given patterns

-X,--exclude <PATTERN[+]>

exclude names matching the given patterns

-m,--message <TEXT>

use text as commit message

-l,--logfile <FILE>

read commit message from file

-d,--date <DATE>

record the specified date as commit date

-u,--user <USER>

record the specified user as committer

-S, --subrepos

recurse into subrepositories

[+] marked option can be specified multiple times

aliases: ci

config

show combined config settings from all hgrc files:

hg config [-u] [NAME]...

With no arguments, print names and values of all config items.

With one argument of the form section.name, print just the value of that config item.

With multiple arguments, print names and values of all config items with matching section names.

With --edit, start an editor on the user-level config file. With --global, edit the system-wide config file. With --local, edit the repository-level config file.

With --debug, the source (filename and line number) is printed for each config item.

See hg help config for more information about config files.

Returns 0 on success, 1 if NAME does not exist.

Options:

-u, --untrusted

show untrusted configuration options

-e, --edit

edit user config

-l, --local

edit repository config

-g, --global

edit global config

-T,--template <TEMPLATE>

display with template (EXPERIMENTAL)

aliases: showconfig debugconfig

copy

mark files as copied for the next commit:

hg copy [OPTION]... [SOURCE]... DEST

Mark dest as having copies of source files. If dest is a directory, copies are put in that directory. If dest is a file, the source must be a single file.

By default, this command copies the contents of files as they exist in the working directory. If invoked with -A/--after, the operation is recorded, but no copying is performed.

This command takes effect with the next commit. To undo a copy before that, see hg revert.

Returns 0 on success, 1 if errors are encountered.

Options:

-A, --after

record a copy that has already occurred

-f, --force

forcibly copy over an existing managed file

-I,--include <PATTERN[+]>

include names matching the given patterns

-X,--exclude <PATTERN[+]>

exclude names matching the given patterns

-n, --dry-run

do not perform actions, just print output

[+] marked option can be specified multiple times

aliases: cp

diff

diff repository (or selected files):

hg diff [OPTION]... ([-c REV] | [-r REV1 [-r REV2]]) [FILE]...

Show differences between revisions for the specified files.

Differences between files are shown using the unified diff format.

Note

hg diff may generate unexpected results for merges, as it will default to comparing against the working directory's first parent changeset if no revisions are specified.

When two revision arguments are given, then changes are shown between those revisions. If only one revision is specified then that revision is compared to the working directory, and, when no revisions are specified, the working directory files are compared to its first parent.

Alternatively you can specify -c/--change with a revision to see the changes in that changeset relative to its first parent.

Without the -a/--text option, diff will avoid generating diffs of files it detects as binary. With -a, diff will generate a diff anyway, probably with undesirable results.

Use the -g/--git option to generate diffs in the git extended diff format. For more information, read hg help diffs.

Examples:

  • compare a file in the current working directory to its parent:

    hg diff foo.c
  • compare two historical versions of a directory, with rename info:

    hg diff --git -r 1.0:1.2 lib/
  • get change stats relative to the last change on some date:

    hg diff --stat -r "date('may 2')"
  • diff all newly-added files that contain a keyword:

    hg diff "set:added() and grep(GNU)"
  • compare a revision and its parents:

    hg diff -c 9353         # compare against first parent
    hg diff -r 9353^:9353   # same using revset syntax
    hg diff -r 9353^2:9353  # compare against the second parent

Returns 0 on success.

Options:

-r,--rev <REV[+]>

revision

-c,--change <REV>

change made by revision

-a, --text

treat all files as text

-g, --git

use git extended diff format

--binary

generate binary diffs in git mode (default)

--nodates

omit dates from diff headers

--noprefix

omit a/ and b/ prefixes from filenames

-p, --show-function

show which function each change is in

--reverse

produce a diff that undoes the changes

-w, --ignore-all-space

ignore white space when comparing lines

-b, --ignore-space-change

ignore changes in the amount of white space

-B, --ignore-blank-lines

ignore changes whose lines are all blank

-U,--unified <NUM>

number of lines of context to show

--stat

output diffstat-style summary of changes

--root <DIR>

produce diffs relative to subdirectory

-I,--include <PATTERN[+]>

include names matching the given patterns

-X,--exclude <PATTERN[+]>

exclude names matching the given patterns

-S, --subrepos

recurse into subrepositories

[+] marked option can be specified multiple times

export

dump the header and diffs for one or more changesets:

hg export [OPTION]... [-o OUTFILESPEC] [-r] [REV]...

Print the changeset header and diffs for one or more revisions. If no revision is given, the parent of the working directory is used.

The information shown in the changeset header is: author, date, branch name (if non-default), changeset hash, parent(s) and commit comment.

Note

hg export may generate unexpected diff output for merge changesets, as it will compare the merge changeset against its first parent only.

Output may be to a file, in which case the name of the file is given using a format string. The formatting rules are as follows:

%%

literal "%" character

%H

changeset hash (40 hexadecimal digits)

%N

number of patches being generated

%R

changeset revision number

%b

basename of the exporting repository

%h

short-form changeset hash (12 hexadecimal digits)

%m

first line of the commit message (only alphanumeric characters)

%n

zero-padded sequence number, starting at 1

%r

zero-padded changeset revision number

Without the -a/--text option, export will avoid generating diffs of files it detects as binary. With -a, export will generate a diff anyway, probably with undesirable results.

Use the -g/--git option to generate diffs in the git extended diff format. See hg help diffs for more information.

With the --switch-parent option, the diff will be against the second parent. It can be useful to review a merge.

Examples:

  • use export and import to transplant a bugfix to the current branch:

    hg export -r 9353 | hg import -
  • export all the changesets between two revisions to a file with rename information:

    hg export --git -r 123:150 > changes.txt
  • split outgoing changes into a series of patches with descriptive names:

    hg export -r "outgoing()" -o "%n-%m.patch"

Returns 0 on success.

Options:

-o,--output <FORMAT>

print output to file with formatted name

--switch-parent

diff against the second parent

-r,--rev <REV[+]>

revisions to export

-a, --text

treat all files as text

-g, --git

use git extended diff format

--binary

generate binary diffs in git mode (default)

--nodates

omit dates from diff headers

[+] marked option can be specified multiple times

files

list tracked files:

hg files [OPTION]... [FILE]...

Print files under Mercurial control in the working directory or specified revision for given files (excluding removed files). Files can be specified as filenames or filesets.

If no files are given to match, this command prints the names of all files under Mercurial control.

Examples:

  • list all files under the current directory:

    hg files .
  • shows sizes and flags for current revision:

    hg files -vr .
  • list all files named README:

    hg files -I "**/README"
  • list all binary files:

    hg files "set:binary()"
  • find files containing a regular expression:

    hg files "set:grep('bob')"
  • search tracked file contents with xargs and grep:

    hg files -0 | xargs -0 grep foo

See hg help patterns and hg help filesets for more information on specifying file patterns.

Returns 0 if a match is found, 1 otherwise.

Options:

-r,--rev <REV>

search the repository as it is in REV

-0, --print0

end filenames with NUL, for use with xargs

-I,--include <PATTERN[+]>

include names matching the given patterns

-X,--exclude <PATTERN[+]>

exclude names matching the given patterns

-T,--template <TEMPLATE>

display with template (EXPERIMENTAL)

-S, --subrepos

recurse into subrepositories

[+] marked option can be specified multiple times

forget

forget the specified files on the next commit:

hg forget [OPTION]... FILE...

Mark the specified files so they will no longer be tracked after the next commit.

This only removes files from the current branch, not from the entire project history, and it does not delete them from the working directory.

To delete the file from the working directory, see hg remove.

To undo a forget before the next commit, see hg add.

Examples:

  • forget newly-added binary files:

    hg forget "set:added() and binary()"
  • forget files that would be excluded by .hgignore:

    hg forget "set:hgignore()"

Returns 0 on success.

Options:

-I,--include <PATTERN[+]>

include names matching the given patterns

-X,--exclude <PATTERN[+]>

exclude names matching the given patterns

[+] marked option can be specified multiple times

graft

copy changes from other branches onto the current branch:

hg graft [OPTION]... [-r REV]... REV...

This command uses Mercurial's merge logic to copy individual changes from other branches without merging branches in the history graph. This is sometimes known as 'backporting' or 'cherry-picking'. By default, graft will copy user, date, and description from the source changesets.

Changesets that are ancestors of the current revision, that have already been grafted, or that are merges will be skipped.

If --log is specified, log messages will have a comment appended of the form:

(grafted from CHANGESETHASH)

If --force is specified, revisions will be grafted even if they are already ancestors of or have been grafted to the destination. This is useful when the revisions have since been backed out.

If a graft merge results in conflicts, the graft process is interrupted so that the current merge can be manually resolved. Once all conflicts are addressed, the graft process can be continued with the -c/--continue option.

Note

The -c/--continue option does not reapply earlier options, except for --force.

Examples:

  • copy a single change to the stable branch and edit its description:

    hg update stable
    hg graft --edit 9393
  • graft a range of changesets with one exception, updating dates:

    hg graft -D "2085::2093 and not 2091"
  • continue a graft after resolving conflicts:

    hg graft -c
  • show the source of a grafted changeset:

    hg log --debug -r .
  • show revisions sorted by date:

    hg log -r "sort(all(), date)"

See hg help revisions for more about specifying revisions.

Returns 0 on successful completion.

Options:

-r,--rev <REV[+]>

revisions to graft

-c, --continue

resume interrupted graft

-e, --edit

invoke editor on commit messages

--log

append graft info to log message

-f, --force

force graft

-D, --currentdate

record the current date as commit date

-U, --currentuser

record the current user as committer

-d,--date <DATE>

record the specified date as commit date

-u,--user <USER>

record the specified user as committer

-t,--tool <VALUE>

specify merge tool

-n, --dry-run

do not perform actions, just print output

[+] marked option can be specified multiple times

grep

search revision history for a pattern in specified files:

hg grep [OPTION]... PATTERN [FILE]...

Search revision history for a regular expression in the specified files or the entire project.

By default, grep prints the most recent revision number for each file in which it finds a match. To get it to print every revision that contains a change in match status ("-" for a match that becomes a non-match, or "+" for a non-match that becomes a match), use the --all flag.

PATTERN can be any Python (roughly Perl-compatible) regular expression.

If no FILEs are specified (and -f/--follow isn't set), all files in the repository are searched, including those that don't exist in the current branch or have been deleted in a prior changeset.

Returns 0 if a match is found, 1 otherwise.

Options:

-0, --print0

end fields with NUL

--all

print all revisions that match

-a, --text

treat all files as text

-f, --follow

follow changeset history, or file history across copies and renames

-i, --ignore-case

ignore case when matching

-l, --files-with-matches

print only filenames and revisions that match

-n, --line-number

print matching line numbers

-r,--rev <REV[+]>

only search files changed within revision range

-u, --user

list the author (long with -v)

-d, --date

list the date (short with -q)

-T,--template <TEMPLATE>

display with template (EXPERIMENTAL)

-I,--include <PATTERN[+]>

include names matching the given patterns

-X,--exclude <PATTERN[+]>

exclude names matching the given patterns

[+] marked option can be specified multiple times

heads

show branch heads:

hg heads [-ct] [-r STARTREV] [REV]...

With no arguments, show all open branch heads in the repository. Branch heads are changesets that have no descendants on the same branch. They are where development generally takes place and are the usual targets for update and merge operations.

If one or more REVs are given, only open branch heads on the branches associated with the specified changesets are shown. This means that you can use hg heads . to see the heads on the currently checked-out branch.

If -c/--closed is specified, also show branch heads marked closed (see hg commit --close-branch).

If STARTREV is specified, only those heads that are descendants of STARTREV will be displayed.

If -t/--topo is specified, named branch mechanics will be ignored and only topological heads (changesets with no children) will be shown.

Returns 0 if matching heads are found, 1 if not.

Options:

-r,--rev <STARTREV>

show only heads which are descendants of STARTREV

-t, --topo

show topological heads only

-a, --active

show active branchheads only (DEPRECATED)

-c, --closed

show normal and closed branch heads

--style <STYLE>

display using template map file (DEPRECATED)

-T,--template <TEMPLATE>

display with template

help

show help for a given topic or a help overview:

hg help [-ecks] [TOPIC]

With no arguments, print a list of commands with short help messages.

Given a topic, extension, or command name, print help for that topic.

Returns 0 if successful.

Options:

-e, --extension

show only help for extensions

-c, --command

show only help for commands

-k, --keyword

show topics matching keyword

-s,--system <VALUE[+]>

show help for specific platform(s)

[+] marked option can be specified multiple times

identify

identify the working directory or specified revision:

hg identify [-nibtB] [-r REV] [SOURCE]

Print a summary identifying the repository state at REV using one or two parent hash identifiers, followed by a "+" if the working directory has uncommitted changes, the branch name (if not default), a list of tags, and a list of bookmarks.

When REV is not given, print a summary of the current state of the repository.

Specifying a path to a repository root or Mercurial bundle will cause lookup to operate on that repository/bundle.

Examples:

  • generate a build identifier for the working directory:

    hg id --id > build-id.dat
  • find the revision corresponding to a tag:

    hg id -n -r 1.3
  • check the most recent revision of a remote repository:

    hg id -r tip https://www.mercurial-scm.org/repo/hg/

See hg log for generating more information about specific revisions, including full hash identifiers.

Returns 0 if successful.

Options:

-r,--rev <REV>

identify the specified revision

-n, --num

show local revision number

-i, --id

show global revision id

-b, --branch

show branch

-t, --tags

show tags

-B, --bookmarks

show bookmarks

-e,--ssh <CMD>

specify ssh command to use

--remotecmd <CMD>

specify hg command to run on the remote side

--insecure

do not verify server certificate (ignoring web.cacerts config)

aliases: id

import

import an ordered set of patches:

hg import [OPTION]... PATCH...

Import a list of patches and commit them individually (unless --no-commit is specified).

To read a patch from standard input (stdin), use "-" as the patch name. If a URL is specified, the patch will be downloaded from there.

Import first applies changes to the working directory (unless --bypass is specified), import will abort if there are outstanding changes.

Use --bypass to apply and commit patches directly to the repository, without affecting the working directory. Without --exact, patches will be applied on top of the working directory parent revision.

You can import a patch straight from a mail message. Even patches as attachments work (to use the body part, it must have type text/plain or text/x-patch). From and Subject headers of email message are used as default committer and commit message. All text/plain body parts before first diff are added to the commit message.

If the imported patch was generated by hg export, user and description from patch override values from message headers and body. Values given on command line with -m/--message and -u/--user override these.

If --exact is specified, import will set the working directory to the parent of each patch before applying it, and will abort if the resulting changeset has a different ID than the one recorded in the patch. This will guard against various ways that portable patch formats and mail systems might fail to transfer Mercurial data or metadata. See hg bundle for lossless transmission.

Use --partial to ensure a changeset will be created from the patch even if some hunks fail to apply. Hunks that fail to apply will be written to a <target-file>.rej file. Conflicts can then be resolved by hand before hg commit --amend is run to update the created changeset. This flag exists to let people import patches that partially apply without losing the associated metadata (author, date, description, ...).

Note

When no hunks apply cleanly, hg import --partial will create an empty changeset, importing only the patch metadata.

With -s/--similarity, hg will attempt to discover renames and copies in the patch in the same way as hg addremove.

It is possible to use external patch programs to perform the patch by setting the ui.patch configuration option. For the default internal tool, the fuzz can also be configured via patch.fuzz. See hg help config for more information about configuration files and how to use these options.

See hg help dates for a list of formats valid for -d/--date.

Examples:

  • import a traditional patch from a website and detect renames:

    hg import -s 80 http://example.com/bugfix.patch
  • import a changeset from an hgweb server:

    hg import https://www.mercurial-scm.org/repo/hg/rev/5ca8c111e9aa
  • import all the patches in an Unix-style mbox:

    hg import incoming-patches.mbox
  • import patches from stdin:

    hg import -
  • attempt to exactly restore an exported changeset (not always possible):

    hg import --exact proposed-fix.patch
  • use an external tool to apply a patch which is too fuzzy for the default internal tool.

    hg import --config ui.patch="patch --merge" fuzzy.patch

  • change the default fuzzing from 2 to a less strict 7

    hg import --config ui.fuzz=7 fuzz.patch

Returns 0 on success, 1 on partial success (see --partial).

Options:

-p,--strip <NUM>

directory strip option for patch. This has the same meaning as the corresponding patch option (default: 1)

-b,--base <PATH>

base path (DEPRECATED)

-e, --edit

invoke editor on commit messages

-f, --force

skip check for outstanding uncommitted changes (DEPRECATED)

--no-commit

don't commit, just update the working directory

--bypass

apply patch without touching the working directory

--partial

commit even if some hunks fail

--exact

abort if patch would apply lossily

--prefix <DIR>

apply patch to subdirectory

--import-branch

use any branch information in patch (implied by --exact)

-m,--message <TEXT>

use text as commit message

-l,--logfile <FILE>

read commit message from file

-d,--date <DATE>

record the specified date as commit date

-u,--user <USER>

record the specified user as committer

-s,--similarity <SIMILARITY>

guess renamed files by similarity (0<=s<=100)

aliases: patch

incoming

show new changesets found in source:

hg incoming [-p] [-n] [-M] [-f] [-r REV]... [--bundle FILENAME] [SOURCE]

Show new changesets found in the specified path/URL or the default pull location. These are the changesets that would have been pulled if a pull at the time you issued this command.

See pull for valid source format details.

With -B/--bookmarks, the result of bookmark comparison between local and remote repositories is displayed. With -v/--verbose, status is also displayed for each bookmark like below:

BM1               01234567890a added
BM2               1234567890ab advanced
BM3               234567890abc diverged
BM4               34567890abcd changed

The action taken locally when pulling depends on the status of each bookmark:

added

pull will create it

advanced

pull will update it

diverged

pull will create a divergent bookmark

changed

result depends on remote changesets

From the point of view of pulling behavior, bookmark existing only in the remote repository are treated as added, even if it is in fact locally deleted.

For remote repository, using --bundle avoids downloading the changesets twice if the incoming is followed by a pull.

Examples:

  • show incoming changes with patches and full description:

    hg incoming -vp
  • show incoming changes excluding merges, store a bundle:

    hg in -vpM --bundle incoming.hg
    hg pull incoming.hg
  • briefly list changes inside a bundle:

    hg in changes.hg -T "{desc|firstline}\n"

Returns 0 if there are incoming changes, 1 otherwise.

Options:

-f, --force

run even if remote repository is unrelated

-n, --newest-first

show newest record first

--bundle <FILE>

file to store the bundles into

-r,--rev <REV[+]>

a remote changeset intended to be added

-B, --bookmarks

compare bookmarks

-b,--branch <BRANCH[+]>

a specific branch you would like to pull

-p, --patch

show patch

-g, --git

use git extended diff format

-l,--limit <NUM>

limit number of changes displayed

-M, --no-merges

do not show merges

--stat

output diffstat-style summary of changes

-G, --graph

show the revision DAG

--style <STYLE>

display using template map file (DEPRECATED)

-T,--template <TEMPLATE>

display with template

-e,--ssh <CMD>

specify ssh command to use

--remotecmd <CMD>

specify hg command to run on the remote side

--insecure

do not verify server certificate (ignoring web.cacerts config)

-S, --subrepos

recurse into subrepositories

[+] marked option can be specified multiple times

aliases: in

init

create a new repository in the given directory:

hg init [-e CMD] [--remotecmd CMD] [DEST]

Initialize a new repository in the given directory. If the given directory does not exist, it will be created.

If no directory is given, the current directory is used.

It is possible to specify an ssh:// URL as the destination. See hg help urls for more information.

Returns 0 on success.

Options:

-e,--ssh <CMD>

specify ssh command to use

--remotecmd <CMD>

specify hg command to run on the remote side

--insecure

do not verify server certificate (ignoring web.cacerts config)

locate

locate files matching specific patterns (DEPRECATED):

hg locate [OPTION]... [PATTERN]...

Print files under Mercurial control in the working directory whose names match the given patterns.

By default, this command searches all directories in the working directory. To search just the current directory and its subdirectories, use "--include .".

If no patterns are given to match, this command prints the names of all files under Mercurial control in the working directory.

If you want to feed the output of this command into the "xargs" command, use the -0 option to both this command and "xargs". This will avoid the problem of "xargs" treating single filenames that contain whitespace as multiple filenames.

See hg help files for a more versatile command.

Returns 0 if a match is found, 1 otherwise.

Options:

-r,--rev <REV>

search the repository as it is in REV

-0, --print0

end filenames with NUL, for use with xargs

-f, --fullpath

print complete paths from the filesystem root

-I,--include <PATTERN[+]>

include names matching the given patterns

-X,--exclude <PATTERN[+]>

exclude names matching the given patterns

[+] marked option can be specified multiple times

log

show revision history of entire repository or files:

hg log [OPTION]... [FILE]

Print the revision history of the specified files or the entire project.

If no revision range is specified, the default is tip:0 unless --follow is set, in which case the working directory parent is used as the starting revision.

File history is shown without following rename or copy history of files. Use -f/--follow with a filename to follow history across renames and copies. --follow without a filename will only show ancestors or descendants of the starting revision.

By default this command prints revision number and changeset id, tags, non-trivial parents, user, date and time, and a summary for each commit. When the -v/--verbose switch is used, the list of changed files and full commit message are shown.

With --graph the revisions are shown as an ASCII art DAG with the most recent changeset at the top. 'o' is a changeset, '@' is a working directory parent, 'x' is obsolete, and '+' represents a fork where the changeset from the lines below is a parent of the 'o' merge on the same line. Paths in the DAG are represented with '|', '/' and so forth. ':' in place of a '|' indicates one or more revisions in a path are omitted.

Note

hg log --patch may generate unexpected diff output for merge changesets, as it will only compare the merge changeset against its first parent. Also, only files different from BOTH parents will appear in files:.

Note

For performance reasons, hg log FILE may omit duplicate changes made on branches and will not show removals or mode changes. To see all such changes, use the --removed switch.

Some examples:

  • changesets with full descriptions and file lists:

    hg log -v
  • changesets ancestral to the working directory:

    hg log -f
  • last 10 commits on the current branch:

    hg log -l 10 -b .
  • changesets showing all modifications of a file, including removals:

    hg log --removed file.c
  • all changesets that touch a directory, with diffs, excluding merges:

    hg log -Mp lib/
  • all revision numbers that match a keyword:

    hg log -k bug --template "{rev}\n"
  • the full hash identifier of the working directory parent:

    hg log -r . --template "{node}\n"
  • list available log templates:

    hg log -T list
  • check if a given changeset is included in a tagged release:

    hg log -r "a21ccf and ancestor(1.9)"
  • find all changesets by some user in a date range:

    hg log -k alice -d "may 2008 to jul 2008"
  • summary of all changesets after the last tag:

    hg log -r "last(tagged())::" --template "{desc|firstline}\n"

See hg help dates for a list of formats valid for -d/--date.

See hg help revisions for more about specifying and ordering revisions.

See hg help templates for more about pre-packaged styles and specifying custom templates.

Returns 0 on success.

Options:

-f, --follow

follow changeset history, or file history across copies and renames

--follow-first

only follow the first parent of merge changesets (DEPRECATED)

-d,--date <DATE>

show revisions matching date spec

-C, --copies

show copied files

-k,--keyword <TEXT[+]>

do case-insensitive search for a given text

-r,--rev <REV[+]>

show the specified revision or revset

--removed

include revisions where files were removed

-m, --only-merges

show only merges (DEPRECATED)

-u,--user <USER[+]>

revisions committed by user

--only-branch <BRANCH[+]>

show only changesets within the given named branch (DEPRECATED)

-b,--branch <BRANCH[+]>

show changesets within the given named branch

-P,--prune <REV[+]>

do not display revision or any of its ancestors

-p, --patch

show patch

-g, --git

use git extended diff format

-l,--limit <NUM>

limit number of changes displayed

-M, --no-merges

do not show merges

--stat

output diffstat-style summary of changes

-G, --graph

show the revision DAG

--style <STYLE>

display using template map file (DEPRECATED)

-T,--template <TEMPLATE>

display with template

-I,--include <PATTERN[+]>

include names matching the given patterns

-X,--exclude <PATTERN[+]>

exclude names matching the given patterns

[+] marked option can be specified multiple times

aliases: history

manifest

output the current or given revision of the project manifest:

hg manifest [-r REV]

Print a list of version controlled files for the given revision. If no revision is given, the first parent of the working directory is used, or the null revision if no revision is checked out.

With -v, print file permissions, symlink and executable bits. With --debug, print file revision hashes.

If option --all is specified, the list of all files from all revisions is printed. This includes deleted and renamed files.

Returns 0 on success.

Options:

-r,--rev <REV>

revision to display

--all

list files from all revisions

-T,--template <TEMPLATE>

display with template (EXPERIMENTAL)

merge

merge another revision into working directory:

hg merge [-P] [[-r] REV]

The current working directory is updated with all changes made in the requested revision since the last common predecessor revision.

Files that changed between either parent are marked as changed for the next commit and a commit must be performed before any further updates to the repository are allowed. The next commit will have two parents.

--tool can be used to specify the merge tool used for file merges. It overrides the HGMERGE environment variable and your configuration files. See hg help merge-tools for options.

If no revision is specified, the working directory's parent is a head revision, and the current branch contains exactly one other head, the other head is merged with by default. Otherwise, an explicit revision with which to merge with must be provided.

See hg help resolve for information on handling file conflicts.

To undo an uncommitted merge, use hg update --clean . which will check out a clean copy of the original merge parent, losing all changes.

Returns 0 on success, 1 if there are unresolved files.

Options:

-f, --force

force a merge including outstanding changes (DEPRECATED)

-r,--rev <REV>

revision to merge

-P, --preview

review revisions to merge (no merge is performed)

-t,--tool <VALUE>

specify merge tool

outgoing

show changesets not found in the destination:

hg outgoing [-M] [-p] [-n] [-f] [-r REV]... [DEST]

Show changesets not found in the specified destination repository or the default push location. These are the changesets that would be pushed if a push was requested.

See pull for details of valid destination formats.

With -B/--bookmarks, the result of bookmark comparison between local and remote repositories is displayed. With -v/--verbose, status is also displayed for each bookmark like below:

BM1               01234567890a added
BM2                            deleted
BM3               234567890abc advanced
BM4               34567890abcd diverged
BM5               4567890abcde changed

The action taken when pushing depends on the status of each bookmark:

added

push with -B will create it

deleted

push with -B will delete it

advanced

push will update it

diverged

push with -B will update it

changed

push with -B will update it

From the point of view of pushing behavior, bookmarks existing only in the remote repository are treated as deleted, even if it is in fact added remotely.

Returns 0 if there are outgoing changes, 1 otherwise.

Options:

-f, --force

run even when the destination is unrelated

-r,--rev <REV[+]>

a changeset intended to be included in the destination

-n, --newest-first

show newest record first

-B, --bookmarks

compare bookmarks

-b,--branch <BRANCH[+]>

a specific branch you would like to push

-p, --patch

show patch

-g, --git

use git extended diff format

-l,--limit <NUM>

limit number of changes displayed

-M, --no-merges

do not show merges

--stat

output diffstat-style summary of changes

-G, --graph

show the revision DAG

--style <STYLE>

display using template map file (DEPRECATED)

-T,--template <TEMPLATE>

display with template

-e,--ssh <CMD>

specify ssh command to use

--remotecmd <CMD>

specify hg command to run on the remote side

--insecure

do not verify server certificate (ignoring web.cacerts config)

-S, --subrepos

recurse into subrepositories

[+] marked option can be specified multiple times

aliases: out

parents

show the parents of the working directory or revision (DEPRECATED):

hg parents [-r REV] [FILE]

Print the working directory's parent revisions. If a revision is given via -r/--rev, the parent of that revision will be printed. If a file argument is given, the revision in which the file was last changed (before the working directory revision or the argument to --rev if given) is printed.

This command is equivalent to:

hg log -r "p1()+p2()" or
hg log -r "p1(REV)+p2(REV)" or
hg log -r "max(::p1() and file(FILE))+max(::p2() and file(FILE))" or
hg log -r "max(::p1(REV) and file(FILE))+max(::p2(REV) and file(FILE))"

See hg summary and hg help revsets for related information.

Returns 0 on success.

Options:

-r,--rev <REV>

show parents of the specified revision

--style <STYLE>

display using template map file (DEPRECATED)

-T,--template <TEMPLATE>

display with template

paths

show aliases for remote repositories:

hg paths [NAME]

Show definition of symbolic path name NAME. If no name is given, show definition of all available names.

Option -q/--quiet suppresses all output when searching for NAME and shows only the path names when listing all definitions.

Path names are defined in the [paths] section of your configuration file and in /etc/mercurial/hgrc. If run inside a repository, .hg/hgrc is used, too.

The path names default and default-push have a special meaning.  When performing a push or pull operation, they are used as fallbacks if no location is specified on the command-line. When default-push is set, it will be used for push and default will be used for pull; otherwise default is used as the fallback for both.  When cloning a repository, the clone source is written as default in .hg/hgrc.

Note

default and default-push apply to all inbound (e.g. hg incoming) and outbound (e.g. hg outgoing, hg email and hg bundle) operations.

See hg help urls for more information.

Returns 0 on success.

Options:

-T,--template <TEMPLATE>

display with template (EXPERIMENTAL)

phase

set or show the current phase name:

hg phase [-p|-d|-s] [-f] [-r] [REV...]

With no argument, show the phase name of the current revision(s).

With one of -p/--public, -d/--draft or -s/--secret, change the phase value of the specified revisions.

Unless -f/--force is specified, hg phase won't move changeset from a lower phase to an higher phase. Phases are ordered as follows:

public < draft < secret

Returns 0 on success, 1 if some phases could not be changed.

(For more information about the phases concept, see hg help phases.)

Options:

-p, --public

set changeset phase to public

-d, --draft

set changeset phase to draft

-s, --secret

set changeset phase to secret

-f, --force

allow to move boundary backward

-r,--rev <REV[+]>

target revision

[+] marked option can be specified multiple times

pull

pull changes from the specified source:

hg pull [-u] [-f] [-r REV]... [-e CMD] [--remotecmd CMD] [SOURCE]

Pull changes from a remote repository to a local one.

This finds all changes from the repository at the specified path or URL and adds them to a local repository (the current one unless -R is specified). By default, this does not update the copy of the project in the working directory.

Use hg incoming if you want to see what would have been added by a pull at the time you issued this command. If you then decide to add those changes to the repository, you should use hg pull -r X where X is the last changeset listed by hg incoming.

If SOURCE is omitted, the 'default' path will be used. See hg help urls for more information.

Specifying bookmark as . is equivalent to specifying the active bookmark's name.

Returns 0 on success, 1 if an update had unresolved files.

Options:

-u, --update

update to new branch head if changesets were pulled

-f, --force

run even when remote repository is unrelated

-r,--rev <REV[+]>

a remote changeset intended to be added

-B,--bookmark <BOOKMARK[+]>

bookmark to pull

-b,--branch <BRANCH[+]>

a specific branch you would like to pull

-e,--ssh <CMD>

specify ssh command to use

--remotecmd <CMD>

specify hg command to run on the remote side

--insecure

do not verify server certificate (ignoring web.cacerts config)

[+] marked option can be specified multiple times

push

push changes to the specified destination:

hg push [-f] [-r REV]... [-e CMD] [--remotecmd CMD] [DEST]

Push changesets from the local repository to the specified destination.

This operation is symmetrical to pull: it is identical to a pull in the destination repository from the current one.

By default, push will not allow creation of new heads at the destination, since multiple heads would make it unclear which head to use. In this situation, it is recommended to pull and merge before pushing.

Use --new-branch if you want to allow push to create a new named branch that is not present at the destination. This allows you to only create a new branch without forcing other changes.

Note

Extra care should be taken with the -f/--force option, which will push all new heads on all branches, an action which will almost always cause confusion for collaborators.

If -r/--rev is used, the specified revision and all its ancestors will be pushed to the remote repository.

If -B/--bookmark is used, the specified bookmarked revision, its ancestors, and the bookmark will be pushed to the remote repository. Specifying . is equivalent to specifying the active bookmark's name.

Please see hg help urls for important details about ssh:// URLs. If DESTINATION is omitted, a default path will be used.

Returns 0 if push was successful, 1 if nothing to push.

Options:

-f, --force

force push

-r,--rev <REV[+]>

a changeset intended to be included in the destination

-B,--bookmark <BOOKMARK[+]>

bookmark to push

-b,--branch <BRANCH[+]>

a specific branch you would like to push

--new-branch

allow pushing a new branch

-e,--ssh <CMD>

specify ssh command to use

--remotecmd <CMD>

specify hg command to run on the remote side

--insecure

do not verify server certificate (ignoring web.cacerts config)

[+] marked option can be specified multiple times

recover

roll back an interrupted transaction:

hg recover

Recover from an interrupted commit or pull.

This command tries to fix the repository status after an interrupted operation. It should only be necessary when Mercurial suggests it.

Returns 0 if successful, 1 if nothing to recover or verify fails.

remove

remove the specified files on the next commit:

hg remove [OPTION]... FILE...

Schedule the indicated files for removal from the current branch.

This command schedules the files to be removed at the next commit. To undo a remove before that, see hg revert. To undo added files, see hg forget.

-A/--after can be used to remove only files that have already been deleted, -f/--force can be used to force deletion, and -Af can be used to remove files from the next revision without deleting them from the working directory.

The following table details the behavior of remove for different file states (columns) and option combinations (rows). The file states are Added [A], Clean [C], Modified [M] and Missing [!] (as reported by hg status). The actions are Warn, Remove (from branch) and Delete (from disk):

opt/state A C M !
none W RD W R
-f R RD RD R
-A W W W R
-Af R R R R
Note

hg remove never deletes files in Added [A] state from the working directory, not even if --force is specified.

Returns 0 on success, 1 if any warnings encountered.

Options:

-A, --after

record delete for missing files

-f, --force

forget added files, delete modified files

-S, --subrepos

recurse into subrepositories

-I,--include <PATTERN[+]>

include names matching the given patterns

-X,--exclude <PATTERN[+]>

exclude names matching the given patterns

[+] marked option can be specified multiple times

aliases: rm

rename

rename files; equivalent of copy + remove:

hg rename [OPTION]... SOURCE... DEST

Mark dest as copies of sources; mark sources for deletion. If dest is a directory, copies are put in that directory. If dest is a file, there can only be one source.

By default, this command copies the contents of files as they exist in the working directory. If invoked with -A/--after, the operation is recorded, but no copying is performed.

This command takes effect at the next commit. To undo a rename before that, see hg revert.

Returns 0 on success, 1 if errors are encountered.

Options:

-A, --after

record a rename that has already occurred

-f, --force

forcibly copy over an existing managed file

-I,--include <PATTERN[+]>

include names matching the given patterns

-X,--exclude <PATTERN[+]>

exclude names matching the given patterns

-n, --dry-run

do not perform actions, just print output

[+] marked option can be specified multiple times

aliases: move mv

resolve

redo merges or set/view the merge status of files:

hg resolve [OPTION]... [FILE]...

Merges with unresolved conflicts are often the result of non-interactive merging using the internal:merge configuration setting, or a command-line merge tool like diff3. The resolve command is used to manage the files involved in a merge, after hg merge has been run, and before hg commit is run (i.e. the working directory must have two parents). See hg help merge-tools for information on configuring merge tools.

The resolve command can be used in the following ways:

  • hg resolve [--tool TOOL] FILE...: attempt to re-merge the specified files, discarding any previous merge attempts. Re-merging is not performed for files already marked as resolved. Use --all/-a to select all unresolved files. --tool can be used to specify the merge tool used for the given files. It overrides the HGMERGE environment variable and your configuration files.  Previous file contents are saved with a .orig suffix.
  • hg resolve -m [FILE]: mark a file as having been resolved (e.g. after having manually fixed-up the files). The default is to mark all unresolved files.
  • hg resolve -u [FILE]...: mark a file as unresolved. The default is to mark all resolved files.
  • hg resolve -l: list files which had or still have conflicts. In the printed list, U = unresolved and R = resolved. You can use set:unresolved() or set:resolved() to filter the list. See hg help filesets for details.
Note

Mercurial will not let you commit files with unresolved merge conflicts. You must use hg resolve -m ... before you can commit after a conflicting merge.

Returns 0 on success, 1 if any files fail a resolve attempt.

Options:

-a, --all

select all unresolved files

-l, --list

list state of files needing merge

-m, --mark

mark files as resolved

-u, --unmark

mark files as unresolved

-n, --no-status

hide status prefix

-t,--tool <VALUE>

specify merge tool

-I,--include <PATTERN[+]>

include names matching the given patterns

-X,--exclude <PATTERN[+]>

exclude names matching the given patterns

-T,--template <TEMPLATE>

display with template (EXPERIMENTAL)

[+] marked option can be specified multiple times

revert

restore files to their checkout state:

hg revert [OPTION]... [-r REV] [NAME]...
Note

To check out earlier revisions, you should use hg update REV. To cancel an uncommitted merge (and lose your changes), use hg update --clean ..

With no revision specified, revert the specified files or directories to the contents they had in the parent of the working directory. This restores the contents of files to an unmodified state and unschedules adds, removes, copies, and renames. If the working directory has two parents, you must explicitly specify a revision.

Using the -r/--rev or -d/--date options, revert the given files or directories to their states as of a specific revision. Because revert does not change the working directory parents, this will cause these files to appear modified. This can be helpful to "back out" some or all of an earlier change. See hg backout for a related method.

Modified files are saved with a .orig suffix before reverting. To disable these backups, use --no-backup. It is possible to store the backup files in a custom directory relative to the root of the repository by setting the ui.origbackuppath configuration option.

See hg help dates for a list of formats valid for -d/--date.

See hg help backout for a way to reverse the effect of an earlier changeset.

Returns 0 on success.

Options:

-a, --all

revert all changes when no arguments given

-d,--date <DATE>

tipmost revision matching date

-r,--rev <REV>

revert to the specified revision

-C, --no-backup

do not save backup copies of files

-i, --interactive

interactively select the changes (EXPERIMENTAL)

-I,--include <PATTERN[+]>

include names matching the given patterns

-X,--exclude <PATTERN[+]>

exclude names matching the given patterns

-n, --dry-run

do not perform actions, just print output

[+] marked option can be specified multiple times

rollback

roll back the last transaction (DANGEROUS) (DEPRECATED):

hg rollback

Please use hg commit --amend instead of rollback to correct mistakes in the last commit.

This command should be used with care. There is only one level of rollback, and there is no way to undo a rollback. It will also restore the dirstate at the time of the last transaction, losing any dirstate changes since that time. This command does not alter the working directory.

Transactions are used to encapsulate the effects of all commands that create new changesets or propagate existing changesets into a repository.

For example, the following commands are transactional, and their effects can be rolled back:

  • commit
  • import
  • pull
  • push (with this repository as the destination)
  • unbundle

To avoid permanent data loss, rollback will refuse to rollback a commit transaction if it isn't checked out. Use --force to override this protection.

The rollback command can be entirely disabled by setting the ui.rollback configuration setting to false. If you're here because you want to use rollback and it's disabled, you can re-enable the command by setting ui.rollback to true.

This command is not intended for use on public repositories. Once changes are visible for pull by other users, rolling a transaction back locally is ineffective (someone else may already have pulled the changes). Furthermore, a race is possible with readers of the repository; for example an in-progress pull from the repository may fail if a rollback is performed.

Returns 0 on success, 1 if no rollback data is available.

Options:

-n, --dry-run

do not perform actions, just print output

-f, --force

ignore safety measures

root

print the root (top) of the current working directory:

hg root

Print the root directory of the current repository.

Returns 0 on success.

serve

start stand-alone webserver:

hg serve [OPTION]...

Start a local HTTP repository browser and pull server. You can use this for ad-hoc sharing and browsing of repositories. It is recommended to use a real web server to serve a repository for longer periods of time.

Please note that the server does not implement access control. This means that, by default, anybody can read from the server and nobody can write to it by default. Set the web.allow_push option to * to allow everybody to push to the server. You should use a real web server if you need to authenticate users.

By default, the server logs accesses to stdout and errors to stderr. Use the -A/--accesslog and -E/--errorlog options to log to files.

To have the server choose a free port number to listen on, specify a port number of 0; in this case, the server will print the port number it uses.

Returns 0 on success.

Options:

-A,--accesslog <FILE>

name of access log file to write to

-d, --daemon

run server in background

--daemon-postexec <VALUE[+]>

used internally by daemon mode

-E,--errorlog <FILE>

name of error log file to write to

-p,--port <PORT>

port to listen on (default: 8000)

-a,--address <ADDR>

address to listen on (default: all interfaces)

--prefix <PREFIX>

prefix path to serve from (default: server root)

-n,--name <NAME>

name to show in web pages (default: working directory)

--web-conf <FILE>

name of the hgweb config file (see 'hg help hgweb')

--webdir-conf <FILE>

name of the hgweb config file (DEPRECATED)

--pid-file <FILE>

name of file to write process ID to

--stdio

for remote clients (ADVANCED)

--cmdserver <MODE>

for remote clients (ADVANCED)

-t,--templates <TEMPLATE>

web templates to use

--style <STYLE>

template style to use

-6, --ipv6

use IPv6 in addition to IPv4

--certificate <FILE>

SSL certificate file

-S, --subrepos

recurse into subrepositories

[+] marked option can be specified multiple times

status

show changed files in the working directory:

hg status [OPTION]... [FILE]...

Show status of files in the repository. If names are given, only files that match are shown. Files that are clean or ignored or the source of a copy/move operation, are not listed unless -c/--clean, -i/--ignored, -C/--copies or -A/--all are given. Unless options described with "show only ..." are given, the options -mardu are used.

Option -q/--quiet hides untracked (unknown and ignored) files unless explicitly requested with -u/--unknown or -i/--ignored.

Note

hg status may appear to disagree with diff if permissions have changed or a merge has occurred. The standard diff format does not report permission changes and diff only reports changes relative to one merge parent.

If one revision is given, it is used as the base revision. If two revisions are given, the differences between them are shown. The --change option can also be used as a shortcut to list the changed files of a revision from its first parent.

The codes used to show the status of files are:

M = modified
A = added
R = removed
C = clean
! = missing (deleted by non-hg command, but still tracked)
? = not tracked
I = ignored
  = origin of the previous file (with --copies)

Examples:

  • show changes in the working directory relative to a changeset:

    hg status --rev 9353
  • show changes in the working directory relative to the current directory (see hg help patterns for more information):

    hg status re:
  • show all changes including copies in an existing changeset:

    hg status --copies --change 9353
  • get a NUL separated list of added files, suitable for xargs:

    hg status -an0

Returns 0 on success.

Options:

-A, --all

show status of all files

-m, --modified

show only modified files

-a, --added

show only added files

-r, --removed

show only removed files

-d, --deleted

show only deleted (but tracked) files

-c, --clean

show only files without changes

-u, --unknown

show only unknown (not tracked) files

-i, --ignored

show only ignored files

-n, --no-status

hide status prefix

-C, --copies

show source of copied files

-0, --print0

end filenames with NUL, for use with xargs

--rev <REV[+]>

show difference from revision

--change <REV>

list the changed files of a revision

-I,--include <PATTERN[+]>

include names matching the given patterns

-X,--exclude <PATTERN[+]>

exclude names matching the given patterns

-S, --subrepos

recurse into subrepositories

-T,--template <TEMPLATE>

display with template (EXPERIMENTAL)

[+] marked option can be specified multiple times

aliases: st

summary

summarize working directory state:

hg summary [--remote]

This generates a brief summary of the working directory state, including parents, branch, commit status, phase and available updates.

With the --remote option, this will check the default paths for incoming and outgoing changes. This can be time-consuming.

Returns 0 on success.

Options:

--remote

check for push and pull

aliases: sum

tag

add one or more tags for the current or given revision:

hg tag [-f] [-l] [-m TEXT] [-d DATE] [-u USER] [-r REV] NAME...

Name a particular revision using <name>.

Tags are used to name particular revisions of the repository and are very useful to compare different revisions, to go back to significant earlier versions or to mark branch points as releases, etc. Changing an existing tag is normally disallowed; use -f/--force to override.

If no revision is given, the parent of the working directory is used.

To facilitate version control, distribution, and merging of tags, they are stored as a file named ".hgtags" which is managed similarly to other project files and can be hand-edited if necessary. This also means that tagging creates a new commit. The file ".hg/localtags" is used for local tags (not shared among repositories).

Tag commits are usually made at the head of a branch. If the parent of the working directory is not a branch head, hg tag aborts; use -f/--force to force the tag commit to be based on a non-head changeset.

See hg help dates for a list of formats valid for -d/--date.

Since tag names have priority over branch names during revision lookup, using an existing branch name as a tag name is discouraged.

Returns 0 on success.

Options:

-f, --force

force tag

-l, --local

make the tag local

-r,--rev <REV>

revision to tag

--remove

remove a tag

-e, --edit

invoke editor on commit messages

-m,--message <TEXT>

use text as commit message

-d,--date <DATE>

record the specified date as commit date

-u,--user <USER>

record the specified user as committer

tags

list repository tags:

hg tags

This lists both regular and local tags. When the -v/--verbose switch is used, a third column "local" is printed for local tags. When the -q/--quiet switch is used, only the tag name is printed.

Returns 0 on success.

Options:

-T,--template <TEMPLATE>

display with template (EXPERIMENTAL)

tip

show the tip revision (DEPRECATED):

hg tip [-p] [-g]

The tip revision (usually just called the tip) is the changeset most recently added to the repository (and therefore the most recently changed head).

If you have just made a commit, that commit will be the tip. If you have just pulled changes from another repository, the tip of that repository becomes the current tip. The "tip" tag is special and cannot be renamed or assigned to a different changeset.

This command is deprecated, please use hg heads instead.

Returns 0 on success.

Options:

-p, --patch

show patch

-g, --git

use git extended diff format

--style <STYLE>

display using template map file (DEPRECATED)

-T,--template <TEMPLATE>

display with template

unbundle

apply one or more bundle files:

hg unbundle [-u] FILE...

Apply one or more bundle files generated by hg bundle.

Returns 0 on success, 1 if an update has unresolved files.

Options:

-u, --update

update to new branch head if changesets were unbundled

update

update working directory (or switch revisions):

hg update [-C|-c|-m] [-d DATE] [[-r] REV]

Update the repository's working directory to the specified changeset. If no changeset is specified, update to the tip of the current named branch and move the active bookmark (see hg help bookmarks).

Update sets the working directory's parent revision to the specified changeset (see hg help parents).

If the changeset is not a descendant or ancestor of the working directory's parent and there are uncommitted changes, the update is aborted. With the -c/--check option, the working directory is checked for uncommitted changes; if none are found, the working directory is updated to the specified changeset.

The -C/--clean, -c/--check, and -m/--merge options control what happens if the working directory contains uncommitted changes. At most of one of them can be specified.

1.

If no option is specified, and if the requested changeset is an ancestor or descendant of the working directory's parent, the uncommitted changes are merged into the requested changeset and the merged result is left uncommitted. If the requested changeset is not an ancestor or descendant (that is, it is on another branch), the update is aborted and the uncommitted changes are preserved.

2.

With the -m/--merge option, the update is allowed even if the requested changeset is not an ancestor or descendant of the working directory's parent.

3.

With the -c/--check option, the update is aborted and the uncommitted changes are preserved.

4.

With the -C/--clean option, uncommitted changes are discarded and the working directory is updated to the requested changeset.

To cancel an uncommitted merge (and lose your changes), use hg update --clean ..

Use null as the changeset to remove the working directory (like hg clone -U).

If you want to revert just one file to an older revision, use hg revert [-r REV] NAME.

See hg help dates for a list of formats valid for -d/--date.

Returns 0 on success, 1 if there are unresolved files.

Options:

-C, --clean

discard uncommitted changes (no backup)

-c, --check

require clean working directory

-m, --merge

merge uncommitted changes

-d,--date <DATE>

tipmost revision matching date

-r,--rev <REV>

revision

-t,--tool <VALUE>

specify merge tool

aliases: up checkout co

verify

verify the integrity of the repository:

hg verify

Verify the integrity of the current repository.

This will perform an extensive check of the repository's integrity, validating the hashes and checksums of each entry in the changelog, manifest, and tracked files, as well as the integrity of their crosslinks and indices.

Please see https://mercurial-scm.org/wiki/RepositoryCorruption for more information about recovery from corruption of the repository.

Returns 0 on success, 1 if errors are encountered.

version

output version and copyright information:

hg version

output version and copyright information

Options:

-T,--template <TEMPLATE>

display with template (EXPERIMENTAL)

Bundle File Formats

Mercurial supports generating standalone "bundle" files that hold repository data. These "bundles" are typically saved locally and used later or exchanged between different repositories, possibly on different machines. Example commands using bundles are hg bundle and hg unbundle.

Generation of bundle files is controlled by a "bundle specification" ("bundlespec") string. This string tells the bundle generation process how to create the bundle.

A "bundlespec" string is composed of the following elements:

type

A string denoting the bundle format to use.

compression

Denotes the compression engine to use compressing the raw bundle data.

parameters

Arbitrary key-value parameters to further control bundle generation.

A "bundlespec" string has the following formats:

<type>

The literal bundle format string is used.

<compression>-<type>

The compression engine and format are delimited by a hyphen (-).

Optional parameters follow the <type>. Parameters are URI escaped key=value pairs. Each pair is delimited by a semicolon (;). The first parameter begins after a ; immediately following the <type> value.

Available Types

The following bundle <type> strings are available:

v1

Produces a legacy "changegroup" version 1 bundle.

This format is compatible with nearly all Mercurial clients because it is the oldest. However, it has some limitations, which is why it is no longer the default for new repositories.

v1 bundles can be used with modern repositories using the "generaldelta" storage format. However, it may take longer to produce the bundle and the resulting bundle may be significantly larger than a v2 bundle.

v1 bundles can only use the gzip, bzip2, and none compression formats.

v2

Produces a version 2 bundle.

Version 2 bundles are an extensible format that can store additional repository data (such as bookmarks and phases information) and they can store data more efficiently, resulting in smaller bundles.

Version 2 bundles can also use modern compression engines, such as zstd, making them faster to compress and often smaller.

Available Compression Engines

The following bundle <compression> engines can be used:

bzip2

An algorithm that produces smaller bundles than gzip.

All Mercurial clients should support this format.

This engine will likely produce smaller bundles than gzip but will be significantly slower, both during compression and decompression.

If available, the zstd engine can yield similar or better compression at much higher speeds.

gzip

zlib compression using the DEFLATE algorithm.

All Mercurial clients should support this format. The compression algorithm strikes a reasonable balance between compression ratio and size.

none

No compression is performed.

Use this compression engine to explicitly disable compression.

Examples

v2

Produce a v2 bundle using default options, including compression.

none-v1

Produce a v1 bundle with no compression.

zstd-v2

Produce a v2 bundle with zstandard compression using default settings.

zstd-v1

This errors because zstd is not supported for v1 types.

Colorizing Outputs

Mercurial colorizes output from several commands.

For example, the diff command shows additions in green and deletions in red, while the status command shows modified files in magenta. Many other commands have analogous colors. It is possible to customize these colors.

To enable color (default) whenever possible use:

[ui]
color = yes

To disable color use:

[ui]
color = no

See hg help config.ui.color for details.

The default pager on Windows does not support color, so enabling the pager will effectively disable color.  See hg help config.ui.paginate to disable the pager.  Alternately, MSYS and Cygwin shells provide less as a pager, which can be configured to support ANSI color mode.

Mode

Mercurial can use various systems to display color. The supported modes are ansi, win32, and terminfo.  See hg help config.color for details about how to control the mode.

Effects

Other effects in addition to color, like bold and underlined text, are also available. By default, the terminfo database is used to find the terminal codes used to change color and effect.  If terminfo is not available, then effects are rendered with the ECMA-48 SGR control function (aka ANSI escape codes).

The available effects in terminfo mode are 'blink', 'bold', 'dim', 'inverse', 'invisible', 'italic', 'standout', and 'underline'; in ECMA-48 mode, the options are 'bold', 'inverse', 'italic', and 'underline'.  How each is rendered depends on the terminal emulator. Some may not be available for a given terminal type, and will be silently ignored.

If the terminfo entry for your terminal is missing codes for an effect or has the wrong codes, you can add or override those codes in your configuration:

[color]
terminfo.dim = \E[2m

where 'E' is substituted with an escape character.

Labels

Text receives color effects depending on the labels that it has. Many default Mercurial commands emit labelled text. You can also define your own labels in templates using the label function, see hg help templates. A single portion of text may have more than one label. In that case, effects given to the last label will override any other effects. This includes the special "none" effect, which nullifies other effects.

Labels are normally invisible. In order to see these labels and their position in the text, use the global --color=debug option. The same anchor text may be associated to multiple labels, e.g.

[log.changeset changeset.secret|changeset:   22611:6f0a53c8f587]

The following are the default effects for some default labels. Default effects may be overridden from your configuration file:

[color]
status.modified = blue bold underline red_background
status.added = green bold
status.removed = red bold blue_background
status.deleted = cyan bold underline
status.unknown = magenta bold underline
status.ignored = black bold

# 'none' turns off all effects
status.clean = none
status.copied = none

qseries.applied = blue bold underline
qseries.unapplied = black bold
qseries.missing = red bold

diff.diffline = bold
diff.extended = cyan bold
diff.file_a = red bold
diff.file_b = green bold
diff.hunk = magenta
diff.deleted = red
diff.inserted = green
diff.changed = white
diff.tab =
diff.trailingwhitespace = bold red_background

# Blank so it inherits the style of the surrounding label
changeset.public =
changeset.draft =
changeset.secret =

resolve.unresolved = red bold
resolve.resolved = green bold

bookmarks.active = green

branches.active = none
branches.closed = black bold
branches.current = green
branches.inactive = none

tags.normal = green
tags.local = black bold

rebase.rebased = blue
rebase.remaining = red bold

shelve.age = cyan
shelve.newest = green bold
shelve.name = blue bold

histedit.remaining = red bold

Custom colors

Because there are only eight standard colors, Mercurial allows you to define color names for other color slots which might be available for your terminal type, assuming terminfo mode.  For instance:

color.brightblue = 12
color.pink = 207
color.orange = 202

to set 'brightblue' to color slot 12 (useful for 16 color terminals that have brighter colors defined in the upper eight) and, 'pink' and 'orange' to colors in 256-color xterm's default color cube.  These defined colors may then be used as any of the pre-defined eight, including appending '_background' to set the background to that color.

Date Formats

Some commands allow the user to specify a date, e.g.:

Many date formats are valid. Here are some examples:

Lastly, there is Mercurial's internal format:

This is the internal representation format for dates. The first number is the number of seconds since the epoch (1970-01-01 00:00 UTC). The second is the offset of the local timezone, in seconds west of UTC (negative if the timezone is east of UTC).

The log command also accepts date ranges:

Diff Formats

Mercurial's default format for showing changes between two versions of a file is compatible with the unified format of GNU diff, which can be used by GNU patch and many other standard tools.

While this standard format is often enough, it does not encode the following information:

Mercurial also supports the extended diff format from the git VCS which addresses these limitations. The git diff format is not produced by default because a few widespread tools still do not understand this format.

This means that when generating diffs from a Mercurial repository (e.g. with hg export), you should be careful about things like file copies and renames or other things mentioned above, because when applying a standard diff to a different repository, this extra information is lost. Mercurial's internal operations (like push and pull) are not affected by this, because they use an internal binary format for communicating changes.

To make Mercurial produce the git extended diff format, use the --git option available for many commands, or set 'git = True' in the [diff] section of your configuration file. You do not need to set this option when importing diffs in this format or using them in the mq extension.

Environment Variables

HG

Path to the 'hg' executable, automatically passed when running hooks, extensions or external tools. If unset or empty, this is the hg executable's name if it's frozen, or an executable named 'hg' (with %PATHEXT% [defaulting to COM/EXE/BAT/CMD] extensions on Windows) is searched.

HGEDITOR

This is the name of the editor to run when committing. See EDITOR.

(deprecated, see hg help config.ui.editor)

HGENCODING

This overrides the default locale setting detected by Mercurial. This setting is used to convert data including usernames, changeset descriptions, tag names, and branches. This setting can be overridden with the --encoding command-line option.

HGENCODINGMODE

This sets Mercurial's behavior for handling unknown characters while transcoding user input. The default is "strict", which causes Mercurial to abort if it can't map a character. Other settings include "replace", which replaces unknown characters, and "ignore", which drops them. This setting can be overridden with the --encodingmode command-line option.

HGENCODINGAMBIGUOUS

This sets Mercurial's behavior for handling characters with "ambiguous" widths like accented Latin characters with East Asian fonts. By default, Mercurial assumes ambiguous characters are narrow, set this variable to "wide" if such characters cause formatting problems.

HGMERGE

An executable to use for resolving merge conflicts. The program will be executed with three arguments: local file, remote file, ancestor file.

(deprecated, see hg help config.ui.merge)

HGRCPATH

A list of files or directories to search for configuration files. Item separator is ":" on Unix, ";" on Windows. If HGRCPATH is not set, platform default search path is used. If empty, only the .hg/hgrc from the current repository is read.

For each element in HGRCPATH:

  • if it's a directory, all files ending with .rc are added
  • otherwise, the file itself will be added
HGPLAIN

When set, this disables any configuration settings that might change Mercurial's default output. This includes encoding, defaults, verbose mode, debug mode, quiet mode, tracebacks, and localization. This can be useful when scripting against Mercurial in the face of existing user configuration.

Equivalent options set via command line flags or environment variables are not overridden.

HGPLAINEXCEPT

This is a comma-separated list of features to preserve when HGPLAIN is enabled. Currently the following values are supported:

alias

Don't remove aliases.

i18n

Preserve internationalization.

revsetalias

Don't remove revset aliases.

templatealias

Don't remove template aliases.

progress

Don't hide progress output.

Setting HGPLAINEXCEPT to anything (even an empty string) will enable plain mode.

HGUSER

This is the string used as the author of a commit. If not set, available values will be considered in this order:

  • HGUSER (deprecated)
  • configuration files from the HGRCPATH
  • EMAIL
  • interactive prompt
  • LOGNAME (with @hostname appended)

(deprecated, see hg help config.ui.username)

EMAIL

May be used as the author of a commit; see HGUSER.

LOGNAME

May be used as the author of a commit; see HGUSER.

VISUAL

This is the name of the editor to use when committing. See EDITOR.

EDITOR

Sometimes Mercurial needs to open a text file in an editor for a user to modify, for example when writing commit messages. The editor it uses is determined by looking at the environment variables HGEDITOR, VISUAL and EDITOR, in that order. The first non-empty one is chosen. If all of them are empty, the editor defaults to 'vi'.

PYTHONPATH

This is used by Python to find imported modules and may need to be set appropriately if this Mercurial is not installed system-wide.

Using Additional Features

Mercurial has the ability to add new features through the use of extensions. Extensions may add new commands, add options to existing commands, change the default behavior of commands, or implement hooks.

To enable the "foo" extension, either shipped with Mercurial or in the Python search path, create an entry for it in your configuration file, like this:

[extensions]
foo =

You may also specify the full path to an extension:

[extensions]
myfeature = ~/.hgext/myfeature.py

See hg help config for more information on configuration files.

Extensions are not loaded by default for a variety of reasons: they can increase startup overhead; they may be meant for advanced usage only; they may provide potentially dangerous abilities (such as letting you destroy or modify history); they might not be ready for prime time; or they may alter some usual behaviors of stock Mercurial. It is thus up to the user to activate extensions as needed.

To explicitly disable an extension enabled in a configuration file of broader scope, prepend its path with !:

[extensions]
# disabling extension bar residing in /path/to/extension/bar.py
bar = !/path/to/extension/bar.py
# ditto, but no path was supplied for extension baz
baz = !

disabled extensions:

acl

hooks for controlling repository access

blackbox

log repository events to a blackbox for debugging

bugzilla

hooks for integrating with the Bugzilla bug tracker

censor

erase file content at a given revision

churn

command to display statistics about repository history

clonebundles

advertise pre-generated bundles to seed clones

convert

import revisions from foreign VCS repositories into Mercurial

eol

automatically manage newlines in repository files

extdiff

command to allow external programs to compare revisions

factotum

http authentication with factotum

gpg

commands to sign and verify changesets

hgk

browse the repository in a graphical way

highlight

syntax highlighting for hgweb (requires Pygments)

histedit

interactive history editing

keyword

expand keywords in tracked files

largefiles

track large binary files

mq

manage a stack of patches

notify

hooks for sending email push notifications

patchbomb

command to send changesets as (a series of) patch emails

purge

command to delete untracked files from the working directory

rebase

command to move sets of revisions to a different ancestor

relink

recreates hardlinks between repository clones

schemes

extend schemes with shortcuts to repository swarms

share

share a common history between several working directories

shelve

save and restore changes to the working directory

strip

strip changesets and their descendants from history

transplant

command to transplant changesets from another branch

win32mbcs

allow the use of MBCS paths with problematic encodings

zeroconf

discover and advertise repositories on the local network

Specifying File Sets

Mercurial supports a functional language for selecting a set of files.

Like other file patterns, this pattern type is indicated by a prefix, 'set:'. The language supports a number of predicates which are joined by infix operators. Parenthesis can be used for grouping.

Identifiers such as filenames or patterns must be quoted with single or double quotes if they contain characters outside of [.*{}[]?/\_a-zA-Z0-9\x80-\xff] or if they match one of the predefined predicates. This generally applies to file patterns other than globs and arguments for predicates.

Special characters can be used in quoted identifiers by escaping them, e.g., \n is interpreted as a newline. To prevent them from being interpreted, strings can be prefixed with r, e.g. r'...'.

See also hg help patterns.

Operators

There is a single prefix operator:

not x

Files not in x. Short form is ! x.

These are the supported infix operators:

x and y

The intersection of files in x and y. Short form is x & y.

x or y

The union of files in x and y. There are two alternative short forms: x | y and x + y.

x - y

Files in x but not in y.

Predicates

The following predicates are supported:

added()

File that is added according to hg status.

binary()

File that appears to be binary (contains NUL bytes).

clean()

File that is clean according to hg status.

copied()

File that is recorded as being copied.

deleted()

Alias for missing().

encoding(name)

File can be successfully decoded with the given character encoding. May not be useful for encodings other than ASCII and UTF-8.

eol(style)

File contains newlines of the given style (dos, unix, mac). Binary files are excluded, files with mixed line endings match multiple styles.

exec()

File that is marked as executable.

grep(regex)

File contains the given regular expression.

hgignore()

File that matches the active .hgignore pattern.

ignored()

File that is ignored according to hg status. These files will only be considered if this predicate is used.

missing()

File that is missing according to hg status.

modified()

File that is modified according to hg status.

portable()

File that has a portable name. (This doesn't include filenames with case collisions.)

removed()

File that is removed according to hg status.

resolved()

File that is marked resolved according to hg resolve -l.

revs(revs, pattern)

Evaluate set in the specified revisions. If the revset match multiple revs, this will return file matching pattern in any of the revision.

size(expression)

File size matches the given expression. Examples:

  • size('1k') - files from 1024 to 2047 bytes
  • size('< 20k') - files less than 20480 bytes
  • size('>= .5MB') - files at least 524288 bytes
  • size('4k - 1MB') - files from 4096 bytes to 1048576 bytes
status(base, rev, pattern)

Evaluate predicate using status change between base and rev. Examples:

  • status(3, 7, added()) - matches files added from "3" to "7"
subrepo([pattern])

Subrepositories whose paths match the given pattern.

symlink()

File that is marked as a symlink.

unknown()

File that is unknown according to hg status. These files will only be considered if this predicate is used.

unresolved()

File that is marked unresolved according to hg resolve -l.

Examples

Some sample queries:

  • Show status of files that appear to be binary in the working directory:

    hg status -A "set:binary()"
  • Forget files that are in .hgignore but are already tracked:

    hg forget "set:hgignore() and not ignored()"
  • Find text files that contain a string:

    hg files "set:grep(magic) and not binary()"
  • Find C files in a non-standard encoding:

    hg files "set:**.c and not encoding('UTF-8')"
  • Revert copies of large binary files:

    hg revert "set:copied() and binary() and size('>1M')"
  • Revert files that were added to the working directory:

    hg revert "set:revs('wdir()', added())"
  • Remove files listed in foo.lst that contain the letter a or b:

    hg remove "set: 'listfile:foo.lst' and (**a* or **b*)"

Glossary

Ancestor

Any changeset that can be reached by an unbroken chain of parent changesets from a given changeset. More precisely, the ancestors of a changeset can be defined by two properties: a parent of a changeset is an ancestor, and a parent of an ancestor is an ancestor. See also: 'Descendant'.

Bookmark

Bookmarks are pointers to certain commits that move when committing. They are similar to tags in that it is possible to use bookmark names in all places where Mercurial expects a changeset ID, e.g., with hg update. Unlike tags, bookmarks move along when you make a commit.

Bookmarks can be renamed, copied and deleted. Bookmarks are local, unless they are explicitly pushed or pulled between repositories. Pushing and pulling bookmarks allow you to collaborate with others on a branch without creating a named branch.

Branch

(Noun) A child changeset that has been created from a parent that is not a head. These are known as topological branches, see 'Branch, topological'. If a topological branch is named, it becomes a named branch. If a topological branch is not named, it becomes an anonymous branch. See 'Branch, anonymous' and 'Branch, named'.

Branches may be created when changes are pulled from or pushed to a remote repository, since new heads may be created by these operations. Note that the term branch can also be used informally to describe a development process in which certain development is done independently of other development. This is sometimes done explicitly with a named branch, but it can also be done locally, using bookmarks or clones and anonymous branches.

Example: "The experimental branch."

(Verb) The action of creating a child changeset which results in its parent having more than one child.

Example: "I'm going to branch at X."

Branch, anonymous

Every time a new child changeset is created from a parent that is not a head and the name of the branch is not changed, a new anonymous branch is created.

Branch, closed

A named branch whose branch heads have all been closed.

Branch, default

The branch assigned to a changeset when no name has previously been assigned.

Branch head

See 'Head, branch'.

Branch, inactive

If a named branch has no topological heads, it is considered to be inactive. As an example, a feature branch becomes inactive when it is merged into the default branch. The hg branches command shows inactive branches by default, though they can be hidden with hg branches --active.

NOTE: this concept is deprecated because it is too implicit. Branches should now be explicitly closed using hg commit --close-branch when they are no longer needed.

Branch, named

A collection of changesets which have the same branch name. By default, children of a changeset in a named branch belong to the same named branch. A child can be explicitly assigned to a different branch. See hg help branch, hg help branches and hg commit --close-branch for more information on managing branches.

Named branches can be thought of as a kind of namespace, dividing the collection of changesets that comprise the repository into a collection of disjoint subsets. A named branch is not necessarily a topological branch. If a new named branch is created from the head of another named branch, or the default branch, but no further changesets are added to that previous branch, then that previous branch will be a branch in name only.

Branch tip

See 'Tip, branch'.

Branch, topological

Every time a new child changeset is created from a parent that is not a head, a new topological branch is created. If a topological branch is named, it becomes a named branch. If a topological branch is not named, it becomes an anonymous branch of the current, possibly default, branch.

Changelog

A record of the changesets in the order in which they were added to the repository. This includes details such as changeset id, author, commit message, date, and list of changed files.

Changeset

A snapshot of the state of the repository used to record a change.

Changeset, child

The converse of parent changeset: if P is a parent of C, then C is a child of P. There is no limit to the number of children that a changeset may have.

Changeset id

A SHA-1 hash that uniquely identifies a changeset. It may be represented as either a "long" 40 hexadecimal digit string, or a "short" 12 hexadecimal digit string.

Changeset, merge

A changeset with two parents. This occurs when a merge is committed.

Changeset, parent

A revision upon which a child changeset is based. Specifically, a parent changeset of a changeset C is a changeset whose node immediately precedes C in the DAG. Changesets have at most two parents.

Checkout

(Noun) The working directory being updated to a specific revision. This use should probably be avoided where possible, as changeset is much more appropriate than checkout in this context.

Example: "I'm using checkout X."

(Verb) Updating the working directory to a specific changeset. See hg help update.

Example: "I'm going to check out changeset X."

Child changeset

See 'Changeset, child'.

Close changeset

See 'Head, closed branch'.

Closed branch

See 'Branch, closed'.

Clone

(Noun) An entire or partial copy of a repository. The partial clone must be in the form of a revision and its ancestors.

Example: "Is your clone up to date?"

(Verb) The process of creating a clone, using hg clone.

Example: "I'm going to clone the repository."

Closed branch head

See 'Head, closed branch'.

Commit

(Noun) A synonym for changeset.

Example: "Is the bug fixed in your recent commit?"

(Verb) The act of recording changes to a repository. When files are committed in a working directory, Mercurial finds the differences between the committed files and their parent changeset, creating a new changeset in the repository.

Example: "You should commit those changes now."

Cset

A common abbreviation of the term changeset.

DAG

The repository of changesets of a distributed version control system (DVCS) can be described as a directed acyclic graph (DAG), consisting of nodes and edges, where nodes correspond to changesets and edges imply a parent -> child relation. This graph can be visualized by graphical tools such as hg log --graph. In Mercurial, the DAG is limited by the requirement for children to have at most two parents.

Deprecated

Feature removed from documentation, but not scheduled for removal.

Default branch

See 'Branch, default'.

Descendant

Any changeset that can be reached by a chain of child changesets from a given changeset. More precisely, the descendants of a changeset can be defined by two properties: the child of a changeset is a descendant, and the child of a descendant is a descendant. See also: 'Ancestor'.

Diff

(Noun) The difference between the contents and attributes of files in two changesets or a changeset and the current working directory. The difference is usually represented in a standard form called a "diff" or "patch". The "git diff" format is used when the changes include copies, renames, or changes to file attributes, none of which can be represented/handled by classic "diff" and "patch".

Example: "Did you see my correction in the diff?"

(Verb) Diffing two changesets is the action of creating a diff or patch.

Example: "If you diff with changeset X, you will see what I mean."

Directory, working

The working directory represents the state of the files tracked by Mercurial, that will be recorded in the next commit. The working directory initially corresponds to the snapshot at an existing changeset, known as the parent of the working directory. See 'Parent, working directory'. The state may be modified by changes to the files introduced manually or by a merge. The repository metadata exists in the .hg directory inside the working directory.

Draft

Changesets in the draft phase have not been shared with publishing repositories and may thus be safely changed by history-modifying extensions. See hg help phases.

Experimental

Feature that may change or be removed at a later date.

Graph

See DAG and hg log --graph.

Head

The term 'head' may be used to refer to both a branch head or a repository head, depending on the context. See 'Head, branch' and 'Head, repository' for specific definitions.

Heads are where development generally takes place and are the usual targets for update and merge operations.

Head, branch

A changeset with no descendants on the same named branch.

Head, closed branch

A changeset that marks a head as no longer interesting. The closed head is no longer listed by hg heads. A branch is considered closed when all its heads are closed and consequently is not listed by hg branches.

Closed heads can be re-opened by committing new changeset as the child of the changeset that marks a head as closed.

Head, repository

A topological head which has not been closed.

Head, topological

A changeset with no children in the repository.

History, immutable

Once committed, changesets cannot be altered.  Extensions which appear to change history actually create new changesets that replace existing ones, and then destroy the old changesets. Doing so in public repositories can result in old changesets being reintroduced to the repository.

History, rewriting

The changesets in a repository are immutable. However, extensions to Mercurial can be used to alter the repository, usually in such a way as to preserve changeset contents.

Immutable history

See 'History, immutable'.

Merge changeset

See 'Changeset, merge'.

Manifest

Each changeset has a manifest, which is the list of files that are tracked by the changeset.

Merge

Used to bring together divergent branches of work. When you update to a changeset and then merge another changeset, you bring the history of the latter changeset into your working directory. Once conflicts are resolved (and marked), this merge may be committed as a merge changeset, bringing two branches together in the DAG.

Named branch

See 'Branch, named'.

Null changeset

The empty changeset. It is the parent state of newly-initialized repositories and repositories with no checked out revision. It is thus the parent of root changesets and the effective ancestor when merging unrelated changesets. Can be specified by the alias 'null' or by the changeset ID '000000000000'.

Parent

See 'Changeset, parent'.

Parent changeset

See 'Changeset, parent'.

Parent, working directory

The working directory parent reflects a virtual revision which is the child of the changeset (or two changesets with an uncommitted merge) shown by hg parents. This is changed with hg update. Other commands to see the working directory parent are hg summary and hg id. Can be specified by the alias ".".

Patch

(Noun) The product of a diff operation.

Example: "I've sent you my patch."

(Verb) The process of using a patch file to transform one changeset into another.

Example: "You will need to patch that revision."

Phase

A per-changeset state tracking how the changeset has been or should be shared. See hg help phases.

Public

Changesets in the public phase have been shared with publishing repositories and are therefore considered immutable. See hg help phases.

Pull

An operation in which changesets in a remote repository which are not in the local repository are brought into the local repository. Note that this operation without special arguments only updates the repository, it does not update the files in the working directory. See hg help pull.

Push

An operation in which changesets in a local repository which are not in a remote repository are sent to the remote repository. Note that this operation only adds changesets which have been committed locally to the remote repository. Uncommitted changes are not sent. See hg help push.

Repository

The metadata describing all recorded states of a collection of files. Each recorded state is represented by a changeset. A repository is usually (but not always) found in the .hg subdirectory of a working directory. Any recorded state can be recreated by "updating" a working directory to a specific changeset.

Repository head

See 'Head, repository'.

Revision

A state of the repository at some point in time. Earlier revisions can be updated to by using hg update.  See also 'Revision number'; See also 'Changeset'.

Revision number

This integer uniquely identifies a changeset in a specific repository. It represents the order in which changesets were added to a repository, starting with revision number 0. Note that the revision number may be different in each clone of a repository. To identify changesets uniquely between different clones, see 'Changeset id'.

Revlog

History storage mechanism used by Mercurial. It is a form of delta encoding, with occasional full revision of data followed by delta of each successive revision. It includes data and an index pointing to the data.

Rewriting history

See 'History, rewriting'.

Root

A changeset that has only the null changeset as its parent. Most repositories have only a single root changeset.

Secret

Changesets in the secret phase may not be shared via push, pull, or clone. See hg help phases.

Tag

An alternative name given to a changeset. Tags can be used in all places where Mercurial expects a changeset ID, e.g., with hg update. The creation of a tag is stored in the history and will thus automatically be shared with other using push and pull.

Tip

The changeset with the highest revision number. It is the changeset most recently added in a repository.

Tip, branch

The head of a given branch with the highest revision number. When a branch name is used as a revision identifier, it refers to the branch tip. See also 'Branch, head'. Note that because revision numbers may be different in different repository clones, the branch tip may be different in different cloned repositories.

Update

(Noun) Another synonym of changeset.

Example: "I've pushed an update."

(Verb) This term is usually used to describe updating the state of the working directory to that of a specific changeset. See hg help update.

Example: "You should update."

Working directory

See 'Directory, working'.

Working directory parent

See 'Parent, working directory'.

Syntax for Mercurial Ignore Files

Synopsis

The Mercurial system uses a file called .hgignore in the root directory of a repository to control its behavior when it searches for files that it is not currently tracking.

Description

The working directory of a Mercurial repository will often contain files that should not be tracked by Mercurial. These include backup files created by editors and build products created by compilers. These files can be ignored by listing them in a .hgignore file in the root of the working directory. The .hgignore file must be created manually. It is typically put under version control, so that the settings will propagate to other repositories with push and pull.

An untracked file is ignored if its path relative to the repository root directory, or any prefix path of that path, is matched against any pattern in .hgignore.

For example, say we have an untracked file, file.c, at a/b/file.c inside our repository. Mercurial will ignore file.c if any pattern in .hgignore matches a/b/file.c, a/b or a.

In addition, a Mercurial configuration file can reference a set of per-user or global ignore files. See the ignore configuration key on the [ui] section of hg help config for details of how to configure these files.

To control Mercurial's handling of files that it manages, many commands support the -I and -X options; see hg help <command> and hg help patterns for details.

Files that are already tracked are not affected by .hgignore, even if they appear in .hgignore. An untracked file X can be explicitly added with hg add X, even if X would be excluded by a pattern in .hgignore.

Syntax

An ignore file is a plain text file consisting of a list of patterns, with one pattern per line. Empty lines are skipped. The # character is treated as a comment character, and the \ character is treated as an escape character.

Mercurial supports several pattern syntaxes. The default syntax used is Python/Perl-style regular expressions.

To change the syntax used, use a line of the following form:

syntax: NAME

where NAME is one of the following:

regexp

Regular expression, Python/Perl syntax.

glob

Shell-style glob.

The chosen syntax stays in effect when parsing all patterns that follow, until another syntax is selected.

Neither glob nor regexp patterns are rooted. A glob-syntax pattern of the form *.c will match a file ending in .c in any directory, and a regexp pattern of the form \.c$ will do the same. To root a regexp pattern, start it with ^.

Subdirectories can have their own .hgignore settings by adding subinclude:path/to/subdir/.hgignore to the root .hgignore. See hg help patterns for details on subinclude: and include:.

Note

Patterns specified in other than .hgignore are always rooted. Please see hg help patterns for details.

Example

Here is an example ignore file.

# use glob syntax.
syntax: glob

*.elc
*.pyc
*~

# switch to regexp syntax.
syntax: regexp
^\.pc/

Configuring Hgweb

Mercurial's internal web server, hgweb, can serve either a single repository, or a tree of repositories. In the second case, repository paths and global options can be defined using a dedicated configuration file common to hg serve, hgweb.wsgi, hgweb.cgi and hgweb.fcgi.

This file uses the same syntax as other Mercurial configuration files but recognizes only the following sections:

The web options are thoroughly described in hg help config.

The paths section maps URL paths to paths of repositories in the filesystem. hgweb will not expose the filesystem directly - only Mercurial repositories can be published and only according to the configuration.

The left hand side is the path in the URL. Note that hgweb reserves subpaths like rev or file, try using different names for nested repositories to avoid confusing effects.

The right hand side is the path in the filesystem. If the specified path ends with * or ** the filesystem will be searched recursively for repositories below that point. With * it will not recurse into the repositories it finds (except for .hg/patches). With ** it will also search inside repository working directories and possibly find subrepositories.

In this example:

[paths]
/projects/a = /srv/tmprepos/a
/projects/b = c:/repos/b
/ = /srv/repos/*
/user/bob = /home/bob/repos/**

The collections section is deprecated and has been superseded by paths.

URLs and Common Arguments

URLs under each repository have the form /{command}[/{arguments}] where {command} represents the name of a command or handler and {arguments} represents any number of additional URL parameters to that command.

The web server has a default style associated with it. Styles map to a collection of named templates. Each template is used to render a specific piece of data, such as a changeset or diff.

The style for the current request can be overwritten two ways. First, if {command} contains a hyphen (-), the text before the hyphen defines the style. For example, /atom-log will render the log command handler with the atom style. The second way to set the style is with the style query string argument. For example, /log?style=atom. The hyphenated URL parameter is preferred.

Not all templates are available for all styles. Attempting to use a style that doesn't have all templates defined may result in an error rendering the page.

Many commands take a {revision} URL parameter. This defines the changeset to operate on. This is commonly specified as the short, 12 digit hexadecimal abbreviation for the full 40 character unique revision identifier. However, any value described by hg help revisions typically works.

Commands and URLs

The following web commands and their URLs are available:

/annotate/{revision}/{path}

Show changeset information for each line in a file.

The fileannotate template is rendered.

/archive/{revision}.{format}[/{path}]

Obtain an archive of repository content.

The content and type of the archive is defined by a URL path parameter. format is the file extension of the archive type to be generated. e.g. zip or tar.bz2. Not all archive types may be allowed by your server configuration.

The optional path URL parameter controls content to include in the archive. If omitted, every file in the specified revision is present in the archive. If included, only the specified file or contents of the specified directory will be included in the archive.

No template is used for this handler. Raw, binary content is generated.

/bookmarks

Show information about bookmarks.

No arguments are accepted.

The bookmarks template is rendered.

/branches

Show information about branches.

All known branches are contained in the output, even closed branches.

No arguments are accepted.

The branches template is rendered.

/changelog[/{revision}]

Show information about multiple changesets.

If the optional revision URL argument is absent, information about all changesets starting at tip will be rendered. If the revision argument is present, changesets will be shown starting from the specified revision.

If revision is absent, the rev query string argument may be defined. This will perform a search for changesets.

The argument for rev can be a single revision, a revision set, or a literal keyword to search for in changeset data (equivalent to hg log -k).

The revcount query string argument defines the maximum numbers of changesets to render.

For non-searches, the changelog template will be rendered.

/changeset[/{revision}]

Show information about a single changeset.

A URL path argument is the changeset identifier to show. See hg help revisions for possible values. If not defined, the tip changeset will be shown.

The changeset template is rendered. Contents of the changesettag, changesetbookmark, filenodelink, filenolink, and the many templates related to diffs may all be used to produce the output.

/comparison/{revision}/{path}

Show a comparison between the old and new versions of a file from changes made on a particular revision.

This is similar to the diff handler. However, this form features a split or side-by-side diff rather than a unified diff.

The context query string argument can be used to control the lines of context in the diff.

The filecomparison template is rendered.

/diff/{revision}/{path}

Show how a file changed in a particular commit.

The filediff template is rendered.

This handler is registered under both the /diff and /filediff paths. /diff is used in modern code.

/file/{revision}[/{path}]

Show information about a directory or file in the repository.

Info about the path given as a URL parameter will be rendered.

If path is a directory, information about the entries in that directory will be rendered. This form is equivalent to the manifest handler.

If path is a file, information about that file will be shown via the filerevision template.

If path is not defined, information about the root directory will be rendered.

/diff/{revision}/{path}

Show how a file changed in a particular commit.

The filediff template is rendered.

This handler is registered under both the /diff and /filediff paths. /diff is used in modern code.

/filelog/{revision}/{path}

Show information about the history of a file in the repository.

The revcount query string argument can be defined to control the maximum number of entries to show.

The filelog template will be rendered.

/graph[/{revision}]

Show information about the graphical topology of the repository.

Information rendered by this handler can be used to create visual representations of repository topology.

The revision URL parameter controls the starting changeset.

The revcount query string argument can define the number of changesets to show information for.

This handler will render the graph template.

/help[/{topic}]

Render help documentation.

This web command is roughly equivalent to hg help. If a topic is defined, that help topic will be rendered. If not, an index of available help topics will be rendered.

The help template will be rendered when requesting help for a topic. helptopics will be rendered for the index of help topics.

/log[/{revision}[/{path}]]

Show repository or file history.

For URLs of the form /log/{revision}, a list of changesets starting at the specified changeset identifier is shown. If {revision} is not defined, the default is tip. This form is equivalent to the changelog handler.

For URLs of the form /log/{revision}/{file}, the history for a specific file will be shown. This form is equivalent to the filelog handler.

/manifest[/{revision}[/{path}]]

Show information about a directory.

If the URL path arguments are omitted, information about the root directory for the tip changeset will be shown.

Because this handler can only show information for directories, it is recommended to use the file handler instead, as it can handle both directories and files.

The manifest template will be rendered for this handler.

/changeset[/{revision}]

Show information about a single changeset.

A URL path argument is the changeset identifier to show. See hg help revisions for possible values. If not defined, the tip changeset will be shown.

The changeset template is rendered. Contents of the changesettag, changesetbookmark, filenodelink, filenolink, and the many templates related to diffs may all be used to produce the output.

/shortlog

Show basic information about a set of changesets.

This accepts the same parameters as the changelog handler. The only difference is the shortlog template will be rendered instead of the changelog template.

/summary

Show a summary of repository state.

Information about the latest changesets, bookmarks, tags, and branches is captured by this handler.

The summary template is rendered.

/tags

Show information about tags.

No arguments are accepted.

The tags template is rendered.

Technical Implementation Topics

To access a subtopic, use "hg help internals.{subtopic-name}"

bundles

Bundles

censor

Censor

changegroups

Changegroups

requirements

Repository Requirements

revlogs

Revision Logs

wireprotocol

Wire Protocol

Merge Tools

To merge files Mercurial uses merge tools.

A merge tool combines two different versions of a file into a merged file. Merge tools are given the two files and the greatest common ancestor of the two file versions, so they can determine the changes made on both branches.

Merge tools are used both for hg resolve, hg merge, hg update, hg backout and in several extensions.

Usually, the merge tool tries to automatically reconcile the files by combining all non-overlapping changes that occurred separately in the two different evolutions of the same initial base file. Furthermore, some interactive merge programs make it easier to manually resolve conflicting merges, either in a graphical way, or by inserting some conflict markers. Mercurial does not include any interactive merge programs but relies on external tools for that.

Available merge tools

External merge tools and their properties are configured in the merge-tools configuration section - see hgrc(5) - but they can often just be named by their executable.

A merge tool is generally usable if its executable can be found on the system and if it can handle the merge. The executable is found if it is an absolute or relative executable path or the name of an application in the executable search path. The tool is assumed to be able to handle the merge if it can handle symlinks if the file is a symlink, if it can handle binary files if the file is binary, and if a GUI is available if the tool requires a GUI.

There are some internal merge tools which can be used. The internal merge tools are:

:dump

Creates three versions of the files to merge, containing the contents of local, other and base. These files can then be used to perform a merge manually. If the file to be merged is named a.txt, these files will accordingly be named a.txt.local, a.txt.other and a.txt.base and they will be placed in the same directory as a.txt.

:fail

Rather than attempting to merge files that were modified on both branches, it marks them as unresolved. The resolve command must be used to resolve these conflicts.

:local

Uses the local p1() version of files as the merged version.

:merge

Uses the internal non-interactive simple merge algorithm for merging files. It will fail if there are any conflicts and leave markers in the partially merged file. Markers will have two sections, one for each side of merge.

:merge-local

Like :merge, but resolve all conflicts non-interactively in favor of the local p1() changes.

:merge-other

Like :merge, but resolve all conflicts non-interactively in favor of the other p2() changes.

:merge3

Uses the internal non-interactive simple merge algorithm for merging files. It will fail if there are any conflicts and leave markers in the partially merged file. Marker will have three sections, one from each side of the merge and one for the base content.

:other

Uses the other p2() version of files as the merged version.

:prompt

Asks the user which of the local p1() or the other p2() version to keep as the merged version.

:tagmerge

Uses the internal tag merge algorithm (experimental).

:union

Uses the internal non-interactive simple merge algorithm for merging files. It will use both left and right sides for conflict regions. No markers are inserted.

Internal tools are always available and do not require a GUI but will by default not handle symlinks or binary files.

Choosing a merge tool

Mercurial uses these rules when deciding which merge tool to use:

1.

If a tool has been specified with the --tool option to merge or resolve, it is used.  If it is the name of a tool in the merge-tools configuration, its configuration is used. Otherwise the specified tool must be executable by the shell.

2.

If the HGMERGE environment variable is present, its value is used and must be executable by the shell.

3.

If the filename of the file to be merged matches any of the patterns in the merge-patterns configuration section, the first usable merge tool corresponding to a matching pattern is used. Here, binary capabilities of the merge tool are not considered.

4.

If ui.merge is set it will be considered next. If the value is not the name of a configured tool, the specified value is used and must be executable by the shell. Otherwise the named tool is used if it is usable.

5.

If any usable merge tools are present in the merge-tools configuration section, the one with the highest priority is used.

6.

If a program named hgmerge can be found on the system, it is used - but it will by default not be used for symlinks and binary files.

7.

If the file to be merged is not binary and is not a symlink, then internal :merge is used.

8.

Otherwise, :prompt is used.

Note

After selecting a merge program, Mercurial will by default attempt to merge the files using a simple merge algorithm first. Only if it doesn't succeed because of conflicting changes Mercurial will actually execute the merge program. Whether to use the simple merge algorithm first can be controlled by the premerge setting of the merge tool. Premerge is enabled by default unless the file is binary or a symlink.

See the merge-tools and ui sections of hgrc(5) for details on the configuration of merge tools.

Pager Support

Some Mercurial commands can produce a lot of output, and Mercurial will attempt to use a pager to make those commands more pleasant.

To set the pager that should be used, set the application variable:

[pager]
pager = less -FRX

If no pager is set in the user or repository configuration, Mercurial uses the environment variable $PAGER. If $PAGER is not set, pager.pager from the default or system configuration is used. If none of these are set, a default pager will be used, typically less on Unix and more on Windows.

On Windows, more is not color aware, so using it effectively disables color. MSYS and Cygwin shells provide less as a pager, which can be configured to support ANSI color codes.  See hg help config.color.pagermode to configure the color mode when invoking a pager.

You can disable the pager for certain commands by adding them to the pager.ignore list:

[pager]
ignore = version, help, update

To ignore global commands like hg version or hg help, you have to specify them in your user configuration file.

To control whether the pager is used at all for an individual command, you can use --pager=<value>:

To globally turn off all attempts to use a pager, set:

[ui]
paginate = never

which will prevent the pager from running.

File Name Patterns

Mercurial accepts several notations for identifying one or more files at a time.

By default, Mercurial treats filenames as shell-style extended glob patterns.

Alternate pattern notations must be specified explicitly.

Note

Patterns specified in .hgignore are not rooted. Please see hg help hgignore for details.

To use a plain path name without any pattern matching, start it with path:. These path names must completely match starting at the current repository root, and when the path points to a directory, it is matched recursively. To match all files in a directory non-recursively (not including any files in subdirectories), rootfilesin: can be used, specifying an absolute path (relative to the repository root).

To use an extended glob, start a name with glob:. Globs are rooted at the current directory; a glob such as *.c will only match files in the current directory ending with .c.

The supported glob syntax extensions are ** to match any string across path separators and {a,b} to mean "a or b".

To use a Perl/Python regular expression, start a name with re:. Regexp pattern matching is anchored at the root of the repository.

To read name patterns from a file, use listfile: or listfile0:. The latter expects null delimited patterns while the former expects line feeds. Each string read from the file is itself treated as a file pattern.

To read a set of patterns from a file, use include: or subinclude:. include: will use all the patterns from the given file and treat them as if they had been passed in manually.  subinclude: will only apply the patterns against files that are under the subinclude file's directory. See hg help hgignore for details on the format of these files.

All patterns, except for glob: specified in command line (not for -I or -X options), can match also against directories: files under matched directories are treated as matched. For -I and -X options, glob: will match directories recursively.

Plain examples:

path:foo/bar        a name bar in a directory named foo in the root
                    of the repository
path:path:name      a file or directory named "path:name"
rootfilesin:foo/bar the files in a directory called foo/bar, but not any files
                    in its subdirectories and not a file bar in directory foo

Glob examples:

glob:*.c       any name ending in ".c" in the current directory
*.c            any name ending in ".c" in the current directory
**.c           any name ending in ".c" in any subdirectory of the
               current directory including itself.
foo/*          any file in directory foo
foo/**         any file in directory foo plus all its subdirectories,
               recursively
foo/*.c        any name ending in ".c" in the directory foo
foo/**.c       any name ending in ".c" in any subdirectory of foo
               including itself.

Regexp examples:

re:.*\.c$      any name ending in ".c", anywhere in the repository

File examples:

listfile:list.txt  read list from list.txt with one file pattern per line
listfile0:list.txt read list from list.txt with null byte delimiters

See also hg help filesets.

Include examples:

include:path/to/mypatternfile    reads patterns to be applied to all paths
subinclude:path/to/subignorefile reads patterns specifically for paths in the
                                 subdirectory

Working with Phases

What are phases?

Phases are a system for tracking which changesets have been or should be shared. This helps prevent common mistakes when modifying history (for instance, with the mq or rebase extensions).

Each changeset in a repository is in one of the following phases:

  • public : changeset is visible on a public server
  • draft : changeset is not yet published
  • secret : changeset should not be pushed, pulled, or cloned

These phases are ordered (public < draft < secret) and no changeset can be in a lower phase than its ancestors. For instance, if a changeset is public, all its ancestors are also public. Lastly, changeset phases should only be changed towards the public phase.

How are phases managed?

For the most part, phases should work transparently. By default, a changeset is created in the draft phase and is moved into the public phase when it is pushed to another repository.

Once changesets become public, extensions like mq and rebase will refuse to operate on them to prevent creating duplicate changesets. Phases can also be manually manipulated with the hg phase command if needed. See hg help -v phase for examples.

To make yours commits secret by default, put this in your configuration file:

[phases]
new-commit = secret

Phases and servers

Normally, all servers are publishing by default. This means:

- all draft changesets that are pulled or cloned appear in phase
public on the client

- all draft changesets that are pushed appear as public on both
client and server

- secret changesets are neither pushed, pulled, or cloned
Note

Pulling a draft changeset from a publishing server does not mark it as public on the server side due to the read-only nature of pull.

Sometimes it may be desirable to push and pull changesets in the draft phase to share unfinished work. This can be done by setting a repository to disable publishing in its configuration file:

[phases]
publish = False

See hg help config for more information on configuration files.

Note

Servers running older versions of Mercurial are treated as publishing.

Note

Changesets in secret phase are not exchanged with the server. This applies to their content: file names, file contents, and changeset metadata. For technical reasons, the identifier (e.g. d825e4025e39) of the secret changeset may be communicated to the server.

Examples

  • list changesets in draft or secret phase:

    hg log -r "not public()"
  • change all secret changesets to draft:

    hg phase --draft "secret()"
  • forcibly move the current changeset and descendants from public to draft:

    hg phase --force --draft .
  • show a list of changeset revision and phase:

    hg log --template "{rev} {phase}\n"
  • resynchronize draft changesets relative to a remote repository:

    hg phase -fd "outgoing(URL)"

See hg help phase for more information on manually manipulating phases.

Specifying Revisions

Mercurial supports several ways to specify revisions.

Specifying single revisions

A plain integer is treated as a revision number. Negative integers are treated as sequential offsets from the tip, with -1 denoting the tip, -2 denoting the revision prior to the tip, and so forth.

A 40-digit hexadecimal string is treated as a unique revision identifier. A hexadecimal string less than 40 characters long is treated as a unique revision identifier and is referred to as a short-form identifier. A short-form identifier is only valid if it is the prefix of exactly one full-length identifier.

Any other string is treated as a bookmark, tag, or branch name. A bookmark is a movable pointer to a revision. A tag is a permanent name associated with a revision. A branch name denotes the tipmost open branch head of that branch - or if they are all closed, the tipmost closed head of the branch. Bookmark, tag, and branch names must not contain the ":" character.

The reserved name "tip" always identifies the most recent revision.

The reserved name "null" indicates the null revision. This is the revision of an empty repository, and the parent of revision 0.

The reserved name "." indicates the working directory parent. If no working directory is checked out, it is equivalent to null. If an uncommitted merge is in progress, "." is the revision of the first parent.

Finally, commands that expect a single revision (like hg update) also accept revsets (see below for details). When given a revset, they use the last revision of the revset. A few commands accept two single revisions (like hg diff). When given a revset, they use the first and the last revisions of the revset.

Specifying multiple revisions

Mercurial supports a functional language for selecting a set of revisions. Expressions in this language are called revsets.

The language supports a number of predicates which are joined by infix operators. Parenthesis can be used for grouping.

Identifiers such as branch names may need quoting with single or double quotes if they contain characters like - or if they match one of the predefined predicates.

Special characters can be used in quoted identifiers by escaping them, e.g., \n is interpreted as a newline. To prevent them from being interpreted, strings can be prefixed with r, e.g. r'...'.

Operators

There is a single prefix operator:

not x

Changesets not in x. Short form is ! x.

These are the supported infix operators:

x::y

A DAG range, meaning all changesets that are descendants of x and ancestors of y, including x and y themselves. If the first endpoint is left out, this is equivalent to ancestors(y), if the second is left out it is equivalent to descendants(x).

An alternative syntax is x..y.

x:y

All changesets with revision numbers between x and y, both inclusive. Either endpoint can be left out, they default to 0 and tip.

x and y

The intersection of changesets in x and y. Short form is x & y.

x or y

The union of changesets in x and y. There are two alternative short forms: x | y and x + y.

x - y

Changesets in x but not in y.

x % y

Changesets that are ancestors of x but not ancestors of y (i.e. ::x - ::y). This is shorthand notation for only(x, y) (see below). The second argument is optional and, if left out, is equivalent to only(x).

x^n

The nth parent of x, n == 0, 1, or 2. For n == 0, x; for n == 1, the first parent of each changeset in x; for n == 2, the second parent of changeset in x.

x~n

The nth first ancestor of x; x~0 is x; x~3 is x^^^.

x ## y

Concatenate strings and identifiers into one string.

All other prefix, infix and postfix operators have lower priority than ##. For example, a1 ## a2~2 is equivalent to (a1 ## a2)~2.

For example:

[revsetalias]
issue(a1) = grep(r'\bissue[ :]?' ## a1 ## r'\b|\bbug\(' ## a1 ## r'\)')

issue(1234) is equivalent to grep(r'\bissue[ :]?1234\b|\bbug\(1234\)') in this case. This matches against all of "issue 1234", "issue:1234", "issue1234" and "bug(1234)".

There is a single postfix operator:

x^

Equivalent to x^1, the first parent of each changeset in x.

Patterns

Where noted, predicates that perform string matching can accept a pattern string. The pattern may be either a literal, or a regular expression. If the pattern starts with re:, the remainder of the pattern is treated as a regular expression. Otherwise, it is treated as a literal. To match a pattern that actually starts with re:, use the prefix literal:.

Matching is case-sensitive, unless otherwise noted.  To perform a case- insensitive match on a case-sensitive predicate, use a regular expression, prefixed with (?i).

For example, tag(r're:(?i)release') matches "release" or "RELEASE" or "Release", etc

Predicates

The following predicates are supported:

adds(pattern)

Changesets that add a file matching pattern.

The pattern without explicit kind like glob: is expected to be relative to the current directory and match against a file or a directory.

all()

All changesets, the same as 0:tip.

ancestor(*changeset)

A greatest common ancestor of the changesets.

Accepts 0 or more changesets. Will return empty list when passed no args. Greatest common ancestor of a single changeset is that changeset.

ancestors(set)

Changesets that are ancestors of a changeset in set.

author(string)

Alias for user(string).

bisect(string)

Changesets marked in the specified bisect status:

  • good, bad, skip: csets explicitly marked as good/bad/skip
  • goods, bads      : csets topologically good/bad
  • range              : csets taking part in the bisection
  • pruned             : csets that are goods, bads or skipped
  • untested           : csets whose fate is yet unknown
  • ignored            : csets ignored due to DAG topology
  • current            : the cset currently being bisected
bookmark([name])

The named bookmark or all bookmarks.

Pattern matching is supported for name. See hg help revisions.patterns.

branch(string or set)

All changesets belonging to the given branch or the branches of the given changesets.

Pattern matching is supported for string. See hg help revisions.patterns.

branchpoint()

Changesets with more than one child.

bumped()

Mutable changesets marked as successors of public changesets.

Only non-public and non-obsolete changesets can be bumped.

bundle()

Changesets in the bundle.

Bundle must be specified by the -R option.

children(set)

Child changesets of changesets in set.

closed()

Changeset is closed.

contains(pattern)

The revision's manifest contains a file matching pattern (but might not modify it). See hg help patterns for information about file patterns.

The pattern without explicit kind like glob: is expected to be relative to the current directory and match against a file exactly for efficiency.

converted([id])

Changesets converted from the given identifier in the old repository if present, or all converted changesets if no identifier is specified.

date(interval)

Changesets within the interval, see hg help dates.

desc(string)

Search commit message for string. The match is case-insensitive.

Pattern matching is supported for string. See hg help revisions.patterns.

descendants(set)

Changesets which are descendants of changesets in set.

destination([set])

Changesets that were created by a graft, transplant or rebase operation, with the given revisions specified as the source.  Omitting the optional set is the same as passing all().

divergent()

Final successors of changesets with an alternative set of final successors.

draft()

Changeset in draft phase.

extinct()

Obsolete changesets with obsolete descendants only.

extra(label, [value])

Changesets with the given label in the extra metadata, with the given optional value.

Pattern matching is supported for value. See hg help revisions.patterns.

file(pattern)

Changesets affecting files matched by pattern.

For a faster but less accurate result, consider using filelog() instead.

This predicate uses glob: as the default kind of pattern.

filelog(pattern)

Changesets connected to the specified filelog.

For performance reasons, visits only revisions mentioned in the file-level filelog, rather than filtering through all changesets (much faster, but doesn't include deletes or duplicate changes). For a slower, more accurate result, use file().

The pattern without explicit kind like glob: is expected to be relative to the current directory and match against a file exactly for efficiency.

If some linkrev points to revisions filtered by the current repoview, we'll work around it to return a non-filtered value.

first(set, [n])

An alias for limit().

follow([pattern[, startrev]])

An alias for ::. (ancestors of the working directory's first parent). If pattern is specified, the histories of files matching given pattern in the revision given by startrev are followed, including copies.

followlines(file, fromline:toline[, startrev=., descend=False])

Changesets modifying file in line range ('fromline', 'toline').

Line range corresponds to 'file' content at 'startrev' and should hence be consistent with file size. If startrev is not specified, working directory's parent is used.

By default, ancestors of 'startrev' are returned. If 'descend' is True, descendants of 'startrev' are returned though renames are (currently) not followed in this direction.

grep(regex)

Like keyword(string) but accepts a regex. Use grep(r'...') to ensure special escape characters are handled correctly. Unlike keyword(string), the match is case-sensitive.

head()

Changeset is a named branch head.

heads(set)

Members of set with no children in set.

hidden()

Hidden changesets.

id(string)

Revision non-ambiguously specified by the given hex string prefix.

keyword(string)

Search commit message, user name, and names of changed files for string. The match is case-insensitive.

For a regular expression or case sensitive search of these fields, use grep(regex).

last(set, [n])

Last n members of set, defaulting to 1.

limit(set[, n[, offset]])

First n members of set, defaulting to 1, starting from offset.

matching(revision [, field])

Changesets in which a given set of fields match the set of fields in the selected revision or set.

To match more than one field pass the list of fields to match separated by spaces (e.g. author description).

Valid fields are most regular revision fields and some special fields.

Regular revision fields are description, author, branch, date, files, phase, parents, substate, user and diff. Note that author and user are synonyms. diff refers to the contents of the revision. Two revisions matching their diff will also match their files.

Special fields are summary and metadata: summary matches the first line of the description. metadata is equivalent to matching description user date (i.e. it matches the main metadata fields).

metadata is the default field which is used when no fields are specified. You can match more than one field at a time.

max(set)

Changeset with highest revision number in set.

merge()

Changeset is a merge changeset.

min(set)

Changeset with lowest revision number in set.

modifies(pattern)

Changesets modifying files matched by pattern.

The pattern without explicit kind like glob: is expected to be relative to the current directory and match against a file or a directory.

named(namespace)

The changesets in a given namespace.

Pattern matching is supported for namespace. See hg help revisions.patterns.

obsolete()

Mutable changeset with a newer version.

only(set, [set])

Changesets that are ancestors of the first set that are not ancestors of any other head in the repo. If a second set is specified, the result is ancestors of the first set that are not ancestors of the second set (i.e. ::<set1> - ::<set2>).

origin([set])

Changesets that were specified as a source for the grafts, transplants or rebases that created the given revisions.  Omitting the optional set is the same as passing all().  If a changeset created by these operations is itself specified as a source for one of these operations, only the source changeset for the first operation is selected.

outgoing([path])

Changesets not found in the specified destination repository, or the default push location.

p1([set])

First parent of changesets in set, or the working directory.

p2([set])

Second parent of changesets in set, or the working directory.

parents([set])

The set of all parents for all changesets in set, or the working directory.

present(set)

An empty set, if any revision in set isn't found; otherwise, all revisions in set.

If any of specified revisions is not present in the local repository, the query is normally aborted. But this predicate allows the query to continue even in such cases.

public()

Changeset in public phase.

remote([id [,path]])

Local revision that corresponds to the given identifier in a remote repository, if present. Here, the '.' identifier is a synonym for the current local branch.

removes(pattern)

Changesets which remove files matching pattern.

The pattern without explicit kind like glob: is expected to be relative to the current directory and match against a file or a directory.

rev(number)

Revision with the given numeric identifier.

reverse(set)

Reverse order of set.

roots(set)

Changesets in set with no parent changeset in set.

secret()

Changeset in secret phase.

sort(set[, [-]key... [, ...]])

Sort set by keys. The default sort order is ascending, specify a key as -key to sort in descending order.

The keys can be:

  • rev for the revision number,
  • branch for the branch name,
  • desc for the commit message (description),
  • user for user name (author can be used as an alias),
  • date for the commit date
  • topo for a reverse topographical sort

The topo sort order cannot be combined with other sort keys. This sort takes one optional argument, topo.firstbranch, which takes a revset that specifies what topographical branches to prioritize in the sort.

subrepo([pattern])

Changesets that add, modify or remove the given subrepo.  If no subrepo pattern is named, any subrepo changes are returned.

tag([name])

The specified tag by name, or all tagged revisions if no name is given.

Pattern matching is supported for name. See hg help revisions.patterns.

unstable()

Non-obsolete changesets with obsolete ancestors.

user(string)

User name contains string. The match is case-insensitive.

Pattern matching is supported for string. See hg help revisions.patterns.

Aliases

New predicates (known as "aliases") can be defined, using any combination of existing predicates or other aliases. An alias definition looks like:

<alias> = <definition>

in the revsetalias section of a Mercurial configuration file. Arguments of the form a1, a2, etc. are substituted from the alias into the definition.

For example,

[revsetalias]
h = heads()
d(s) = sort(s, date)
rs(s, k) = reverse(sort(s, k))

defines three aliases, h, d, and rs. rs(0:tip, author) is exactly equivalent to reverse(sort(0:tip, author)).

Equivalents

Command line equivalents for hg log:

-f    ->  ::.
-d x  ->  date(x)
-k x  ->  keyword(x)
-m    ->  merge()
-u x  ->  user(x)
-b x  ->  branch(x)
-P x  ->  !::x
-l x  ->  limit(expr, x)

Examples

Some sample queries:

  • Changesets on the default branch:

    hg log -r "branch(default)"
  • Changesets on the default branch since tag 1.5 (excluding merges):

    hg log -r "branch(default) and 1.5:: and not merge()"
  • Open branch heads:

    hg log -r "head() and not closed()"
  • Changesets between tags 1.3 and 1.5 mentioning "bug" that affect hgext/*:

    hg log -r "1.3::1.5 and keyword(bug) and file('hgext/*')"
  • Changesets committed in May 2008, sorted by user:

    hg log -r "sort(date('May 2008'), user)"
  • Changesets mentioning "bug" or "issue" that are not in a tagged release:

    hg log -r "(keyword(bug) or keyword(issue)) and not ancestors(tag())"
  • Update to commit that bookmark @ is pointing too, without activating the bookmark (this works because the last revision of the revset is used):

    hg update :@
  • Show diff between tags 1.3 and 1.5 (this works because the first and the last revisions of the revset are used):

    hg diff -r 1.3::1.5

Using Mercurial from Scripts and Automation

It is common for machines (as opposed to humans) to consume Mercurial. This help topic describes some of the considerations for interfacing machines with Mercurial.

Choosing an Interface

Machines have a choice of several methods to interface with Mercurial. These include:

  • Executing the hg process
  • Querying a HTTP server
  • Calling out to a command server

Executing hg processes is very similar to how humans interact with Mercurial in the shell. It should already be familiar to you.

hg serve can be used to start a server. By default, this will start a "hgweb" HTTP server. This HTTP server has support for machine-readable output, such as JSON. For more, see hg help hgweb.

hg serve can also start a "command server." Clients can connect to this server and issue Mercurial commands over a special protocol. For more details on the command server, including links to client libraries, see https://www.mercurial-scm.org/wiki/CommandServer.

hg serve based interfaces (the hgweb and command servers) have the advantage over simple hg process invocations in that they are likely more efficient. This is because there is significant overhead to spawn new Python processes.

Tip

If you need to invoke several hg processes in short order and/or performance is important to you, use of a server-based interface is highly recommended.

Environment Variables

As documented in hg help environment, various environment variables influence the operation of Mercurial. The following are particularly relevant for machines consuming Mercurial:

HGPLAIN

If not set, Mercurial's output could be influenced by configuration settings that impact its encoding, verbose mode, localization, etc.

It is highly recommended for machines to set this variable when invoking hg processes.

HGENCODING

If not set, the locale used by Mercurial will be detected from the environment. If the determined locale does not support display of certain characters, Mercurial may render these character sequences incorrectly (often by using "?" as a placeholder for invalid characters in the current locale).

Explicitly setting this environment variable is a good practice to guarantee consistent results. "utf-8" is a good choice on UNIX-like environments.

HGRCPATH

If not set, Mercurial will inherit config options from config files using the process described in hg help config. This includes inheriting user or system-wide config files.

When utmost control over the Mercurial configuration is desired, the value of HGRCPATH can be set to an explicit file with known good configs. In rare cases, the value can be set to an empty file or the null device (often /dev/null) to bypass loading of any user or system config files. Note that these approaches can have unintended consequences, as the user and system config files often define things like the username and extensions that may be required to interface with a repository.

Consuming Command Output

It is common for machines to need to parse the output of Mercurial commands for relevant data. This section describes the various techniques for doing so.

Parsing Raw Command Output

Likely the simplest and most effective solution for consuming command output is to simply invoke hg commands as you would as a user and parse their output.

The output of many commands can easily be parsed with tools like grep, sed, and awk.

A potential downside with parsing command output is that the output of commands can change when Mercurial is upgraded. While Mercurial does generally strive for strong backwards compatibility, command output does occasionally change. Having tests for your automated interactions with hg commands is generally recommended, but is even more important when raw command output parsing is involved.

Using Templates to Control Output

Many hg commands support templatized output via the -T/--template argument. For more, see hg help templates.

Templates are useful for explicitly controlling output so that you get exactly the data you want formatted how you want it. For example, log -T {node}\n can be used to print a newline delimited list of changeset nodes instead of a human-tailored output containing authors, dates, descriptions, etc.

Tip

If parsing raw command output is too complicated, consider using templates to make your life easier.

The -T/--template argument allows specifying pre-defined styles. Mercurial ships with the machine-readable styles json and xml, which provide JSON and XML output, respectively. These are useful for producing output that is machine readable as-is.

Important

The json and xml styles are considered experimental. While they may be attractive to use for easily obtaining machine-readable output, their behavior may change in subsequent versions.

These styles may also exhibit unexpected results when dealing with certain encodings. Mercurial treats things like filenames as a series of bytes and normalizing certain byte sequences to JSON or XML with certain encoding settings can lead to surprises.

Command Server Output

If using the command server to interact with Mercurial, you are likely using an existing library/API that abstracts implementation details of the command server. If so, this interface layer may perform parsing for you, saving you the work of implementing it yourself.

Output Verbosity

Commands often have varying output verbosity, even when machine readable styles are being used (e.g. -T json). Adding -v/--verbose and --debug to the command's arguments can increase the amount of data exposed by Mercurial.

An alternate way to get the data you need is by explicitly specifying a template.

Other Topics

revsets

Revisions sets is a functional query language for selecting a set of revisions. Think of it as SQL for Mercurial repositories. Revsets are useful for querying repositories for specific data.

See hg help revsets for more.

share extension

The share extension provides functionality for sharing repository data across several working copies. It can even automatically "pool" storage for logically related repositories when cloning.

Configuring the share extension can lead to significant resource utilization reduction, particularly around disk space and the network. This is especially true for continuous integration (CI) environments.

See hg help -e share for more.

Subrepositories

Subrepositories let you nest external repositories or projects into a parent Mercurial repository, and make commands operate on them as a group.

Mercurial currently supports Mercurial, Git, and Subversion subrepositories.

Subrepositories are made of three components:

1.

Nested repository checkouts. They can appear anywhere in the parent working directory.

2.

Nested repository references. They are defined in .hgsub, which should be placed in the root of working directory, and tell where the subrepository checkouts come from. Mercurial subrepositories are referenced like:

path/to/nested = https://example.com/nested/repo/path

Git and Subversion subrepos are also supported:

path/to/nested = [git]git://example.com/nested/repo/path
path/to/nested = [svn]https://example.com/nested/trunk/path

where path/to/nested is the checkout location relatively to the parent Mercurial root, and https://example.com/nested/repo/path is the source repository path. The source can also reference a filesystem path.

Note that .hgsub does not exist by default in Mercurial repositories, you have to create and add it to the parent repository before using subrepositories.

3.

Nested repository states. They are defined in .hgsubstate, which is placed in the root of working directory, and capture whatever information is required to restore the subrepositories to the state they were committed in a parent repository changeset. Mercurial automatically record the nested repositories states when committing in the parent repository.

Note

The .hgsubstate file should not be edited manually.

Adding a Subrepository

If .hgsub does not exist, create it and add it to the parent repository. Clone or checkout the external projects where you want it to live in the parent repository. Edit .hgsub and add the subrepository entry as described above. At this point, the subrepository is tracked and the next commit will record its state in .hgsubstate and bind it to the committed changeset.

Synchronizing a Subrepository

Subrepos do not automatically track the latest changeset of their sources. Instead, they are updated to the changeset that corresponds with the changeset checked out in the top-level changeset. This is so developers always get a consistent set of compatible code and libraries when they update.

Thus, updating subrepos is a manual process. Simply check out target subrepo at the desired revision, test in the top-level repo, then commit in the parent repository to record the new combination.

Deleting a Subrepository

To remove a subrepository from the parent repository, delete its reference from .hgsub, then remove its files.

Interaction with Mercurial Commands

add

add does not recurse in subrepos unless -S/--subrepos is specified.  However, if you specify the full path of a file in a subrepo, it will be added even without -S/--subrepos specified. Subversion subrepositories are currently silently ignored.

addremove

addremove does not recurse into subrepos unless -S/--subrepos is specified.  However, if you specify the full path of a directory in a subrepo, addremove will be performed on it even without -S/--subrepos being specified.  Git and Subversion subrepositories will print a warning and continue.

archive

archive does not recurse in subrepositories unless -S/--subrepos is specified.

cat

cat currently only handles exact file matches in subrepos. Subversion subrepositories are currently ignored.

commit

commit creates a consistent snapshot of the state of the entire project and its subrepositories. If any subrepositories have been modified, Mercurial will abort.  Mercurial can be made to instead commit all modified subrepositories by specifying -S/--subrepos, or setting "ui.commitsubrepos=True" in a configuration file (see hg help config).  After there are no longer any modified subrepositories, it records their state and finally commits it in the parent repository.  The --addremove option also honors the -S/--subrepos option.  However, Git and Subversion subrepositories will print a warning and abort.

diff

diff does not recurse in subrepos unless -S/--subrepos is specified. Changes are displayed as usual, on the subrepositories elements. Subversion subrepositories are currently silently ignored.

files

files does not recurse into subrepos unless -S/--subrepos is specified.  However, if you specify the full path of a file or directory in a subrepo, it will be displayed even without -S/--subrepos being specified.  Git and Subversion subrepositories are currently silently ignored.

forget

forget currently only handles exact file matches in subrepos. Git and Subversion subrepositories are currently silently ignored.

incoming

incoming does not recurse in subrepos unless -S/--subrepos is specified. Git and Subversion subrepositories are currently silently ignored.

outgoing

outgoing does not recurse in subrepos unless -S/--subrepos is specified. Git and Subversion subrepositories are currently silently ignored.

pull

pull is not recursive since it is not clear what to pull prior to running hg update. Listing and retrieving all subrepositories changes referenced by the parent repository pulled changesets is expensive at best, impossible in the Subversion case.

push

Mercurial will automatically push all subrepositories first when the parent repository is being pushed. This ensures new subrepository changes are available when referenced by top-level repositories.  Push is a no-op for Subversion subrepositories.

serve

serve does not recurse into subrepositories unless -S/--subrepos is specified.  Git and Subversion subrepositories are currently silently ignored.

status

status does not recurse into subrepositories unless -S/--subrepos is specified. Subrepository changes are displayed as regular Mercurial changes on the subrepository elements. Subversion subrepositories are currently silently ignored.

remove

remove does not recurse into subrepositories unless -S/--subrepos is specified.  However, if you specify a file or directory path in a subrepo, it will be removed even without -S/--subrepos.  Git and Subversion subrepositories are currently silently ignored.

update

update restores the subrepos in the state they were originally committed in target changeset. If the recorded changeset is not available in the current subrepository, Mercurial will pull it in first before updating.  This means that updating can require network access when using subrepositories.

Remapping Subrepositories Sources

A subrepository source location may change during a project life, invalidating references stored in the parent repository history. To fix this, rewriting rules can be defined in parent repository hgrc file or in Mercurial configuration. See the [subpaths] section in hgrc(5) for more details.

Template Usage

Mercurial allows you to customize output of commands through templates. You can either pass in a template or select an existing template-style from the command line, via the --template option.

You can customize output for any "log-like" command: log, outgoing, incoming, tip, parents, and heads.

Some built-in styles are packaged with Mercurial. These can be listed with hg log --template list. Example usage:

$ hg log -r1.0::1.1 --template changelog

A template is a piece of text, with markup to invoke variable expansion:

$ hg log -r1 --template "{node}\n"
b56ce7b07c52de7d5fd79fb89701ea538af65746

Keywords

Strings in curly braces are called keywords. The availability of keywords depends on the exact context of the templater. These keywords are usually available for templating a log-like command:

activebookmark

String. The active bookmark, if it is associated with the changeset

author

String. The unmodified author of the changeset.

bisect

String. The changeset bisection status.

bookmarks

List of strings. Any bookmarks associated with the changeset. Also sets 'active', the name of the active bookmark.

branch

String. The name of the branch on which the changeset was committed.

changessincelatesttag

Integer. All ancestors not in the latest tag.

children

List of strings. The children of the changeset.

date

Date information. The date when the changeset was committed.

desc

String. The text of the changeset description.

diffstat

String. Statistics of changes with the following format: "modified files: +added/-removed lines"

extras

List of dicts with key, value entries of the 'extras' field of this changeset.

file_adds

List of strings. Files added by this changeset.

file_copies

List of strings. Files copied in this changeset with their sources.

file_copies_switch

List of strings. Like "file_copies" but displayed only if the --copied switch is set.

file_dels

List of strings. Files removed by this changeset.

file_mods

List of strings. Files modified by this changeset.

files

List of strings. All files modified, added, or removed by this changeset.

graphnode

String. The character representing the changeset node in an ASCII revision graph

index

Integer. The current iteration of the loop. (0 indexed)

latesttag

List of strings. The global tags on the most recent globally tagged ancestor of this changeset.  If no such tags exist, the list consists of the single string "null".

latesttagdistance

Integer. Longest path to the latest tag.

namespaces

Dict of lists. Names attached to this changeset per namespace.

node

String. The changeset identification hash, as a 40 hexadecimal digit string.

obsolete

String. Whether the changeset is obsolete.

p1node

String. The identification hash of the changeset's first parent, as a 40 digit hexadecimal string. If the changeset has no parents, all digits are 0.

p1rev

Integer. The repository-local revision number of the changeset's first parent, or -1 if the changeset has no parents.

p2node

String. The identification hash of the changeset's second parent, as a 40 digit hexadecimal string. If the changeset has no second parent, all digits are 0.

p2rev

Integer. The repository-local revision number of the changeset's second parent, or -1 if the changeset has no second parent.

parents

List of strings. The parents of the changeset in "rev:node" format. If the changeset has only one "natural" parent (the predecessor revision) nothing is shown.

phase

String. The changeset phase name.

phaseidx

Integer. The changeset phase index.

rev

Integer. The repository-local changeset revision number.

subrepos

List of strings. Updated subrepositories in the changeset.

tags

List of strings. Any tags associated with the changeset.

termwidth

Integer. The width of the current terminal.

The "date" keyword does not produce human-readable output. If you want to use a date in your output, you can use a filter to process it. Filters are functions which return a string based on the input variable. Be sure to use the stringify filter first when you're applying a string-input filter to a list-like input variable. You can also use a chain of filters to get the desired output:

$ hg tip --template "{date|isodate}\n"
2008-08-21 18:22 +0000

Filters

List of filters:

addbreaks

Any text. Add an XHTML "<br />" tag before the end of every line except the last.

age

Date. Returns a human-readable date/time difference between the given date/time and the current date/time.

basename

Any text. Treats the text as a path, and returns the last component of the path after splitting by the path separator (ignoring trailing separators). For example, "foo/bar/baz" becomes "baz" and "foo/bar//" becomes "bar".

count

List or text. Returns the length as an integer.

domain

Any text. Finds the first string that looks like an email address, and extracts just the domain component. Example: User <user@example.com> becomes example.com.

email

Any text. Extracts the first string that looks like an email address. Example: User <user@example.com> becomes user@example.com.

emailuser

Any text. Returns the user portion of an email address.

escape

Any text. Replaces the special XML/XHTML characters "&", "<" and ">" with XML entities, and filters out NUL characters.

fill68

Any text. Wraps the text to fit in 68 columns.

fill76

Any text. Wraps the text to fit in 76 columns.

firstline

Any text. Returns the first line of text.

hex

Any text. Convert a binary Mercurial node identifier into its long hexadecimal representation.

hgdate

Date. Returns the date as a pair of numbers: "1157407993 25200" (Unix timestamp, timezone offset).

isodate

Date. Returns the date in ISO 8601 format: "2009-08-18 13:00 +0200".

isodatesec

Date. Returns the date in ISO 8601 format, including seconds: "2009-08-18 13:00:13 +0200". See also the rfc3339date filter.

lower

Any text. Converts the text to lowercase.

nonempty

Any text. Returns '(none)' if the string is empty.

obfuscate

Any text. Returns the input text rendered as a sequence of XML entities.

person

Any text. Returns the name before an email address, interpreting it as per RFC 5322.

revescape

Any text. Escapes all "special" characters, except @. Forward slashes are escaped twice to prevent web servers from prematurely unescaping them. For example, "@foo bar/baz" becomes "@foo%20bar%252Fbaz".

rfc3339date

Date. Returns a date using the Internet date format specified in RFC 3339: "2009-08-18T13:00:13+02:00".

rfc822date

Date. Returns a date using the same format used in email headers: "Tue, 18 Aug 2009 13:00:13 +0200".

short

Changeset hash. Returns the short form of a changeset hash, i.e. a 12 hexadecimal digit string.

shortbisect

Any text. Treats text as a bisection status, and returns a single-character representing the status (G: good, B: bad, S: skipped, U: untested, I: ignored). Returns single space if text is not a valid bisection status.

shortdate

Date. Returns a date like "2006-09-18".

splitlines

Any text. Split text into a list of lines.

stringify

Any type. Turns the value into text by converting values into text and concatenating them.

stripdir

Treat the text as path and strip a directory level, if possible. For example, "foo" and "foo/bar" becomes "foo".

tabindent

Any text. Returns the text, with every non-empty line except the first starting with a tab character.

upper

Any text. Converts the text to uppercase.

urlescape

Any text. Escapes all "special" characters. For example, "foo bar" becomes "foo%20bar".

user

Any text. Returns a short representation of a user name or email address.

utf8

Any text. Converts from the local character encoding to UTF-8.

Note that a filter is nothing more than a function call, i.e. expr|filter is equivalent to filter(expr).

Functions

In addition to filters, there are some basic built-in functions:

date(date[, fmt])

Format a date. See hg help dates for formatting strings. The default is a Unix date format, including the timezone: "Mon Sep 04 15:13:13 2006 0700".

dict([[key=]value...])

Construct a dict from key-value pairs. A key may be omitted if a value expression can provide an unambiguous name.

diff([includepattern [, excludepattern]])

Show a diff, optionally specifying files to include or exclude.

files(pattern)

All files of the current changeset matching the pattern. See hg help patterns.

fill(text[, width[, initialident[, hangindent]]])

Fill many paragraphs with optional indentation. See the "fill" filter.

get(dict, key)

Get an attribute/key from an object. Some keywords are complex types. This function allows you to obtain the value of an attribute on these types.

if(expr, then[, else])

Conditionally execute based on the result of an expression.

ifcontains(needle, haystack, then[, else])

Conditionally execute based on whether the item "needle" is in "haystack".

ifeq(expr1, expr2, then[, else])

Conditionally execute based on whether 2 items are equivalent.

indent(text, indentchars[, firstline])

Indents all non-empty lines with the characters given in the indentchars string. An optional third parameter will override the indent for the first line only if present.

join(list, sep)

Join items in a list with a delimiter.

label(label, expr)

Apply a label to generated content. Content with a label applied can result in additional post-processing, such as automatic colorization.

latesttag([pattern])

The global tags matching the given pattern on the most recent globally tagged ancestor of this changeset. If no such tags exist, the "{tag}" template resolves to the string "null".

localdate(date[, tz])

Converts a date to the specified timezone. The default is local date.

mod(a, b)

Calculate a mod b such that a / b + a mod b == a

pad(text, width[, fillchar=' '[, left=False]])

Pad text with a fill character.

relpath(path)

Convert a repository-absolute path into a filesystem path relative to the current working directory.

revset(query[, formatargs...])

Execute a revision set query. See hg help revset.

rstdoc(text, style)

Format reStructuredText.

separate(sep, args)

Add a separator between non-empty arguments.

shortest(node, minlength=4)

Obtain the shortest representation of a node.

startswith(pattern, text)

Returns the value from the "text" argument if it begins with the content from the "pattern" argument.

strip(text[, chars])

Strip characters from a string. By default, strips all leading and trailing whitespace.

sub(pattern, replacement, expression)

Perform text substitution using regular expressions.

word(number, text[, separator])

Return the nth word from a string.

Operators

We provide a limited set of infix arithmetic operations on integers:

+ for addition
- for subtraction
* for multiplication
/ for floor division (division rounded to integer nearest -infinity)

Division fulfills the law x = x / y + mod(x, y).

Also, for any expression that returns a list, there is a list operator:

expr % "{template}"

As seen in the above example, {template} is interpreted as a template. To prevent it from being interpreted, you can use an escape character \{ or a raw string prefix, r'...'.

Aliases

New keywords and functions can be defined in the templatealias section of a Mercurial configuration file:

<alias> = <definition>

Arguments of the form a1, a2, etc. are substituted from the alias into the definition.

For example,

[templatealias]
r = rev
rn = "{r}:{node|short}"
leftpad(s, w) = pad(s, w, ' ', True)

defines two symbol aliases, r and rn, and a function alias leftpad().

It's also possible to specify complete template strings, using the templates section. The syntax used is the general template string syntax.

For example,

[templates]
nodedate = "{node|short}: {date(date, "%Y-%m-%d")}\n"

defines a template, nodedate, which can be called like:

$ hg log -r . -Tnodedate

Examples

Some sample command line templates:

  • Format lists, e.g. files:

    $ hg log -r 0 --template "files:\n{files % '  {file}\n'}"
  • Join the list of files with a ", ":

    $ hg log -r 0 --template "files: {join(files, ', ')}\n"
  • Join the list of files ending with ".py" with a ", ":

    $ hg log -r 0 --template "pythonfiles: {join(files('**.py'), ', ')}\n"
  • Separate non-empty arguments by a " ":

    $ hg log -r 0 --template "{separate(' ', node, bookmarks, tags}\n"
  • Modify each line of a commit description:

    $ hg log --template "{splitlines(desc) % '**** {line}\n'}"
  • Format date:

    $ hg log -r 0 --template "{date(date, '%Y')}\n"
  • Display date in UTC:

    $ hg log -r 0 --template "{localdate(date, 'UTC')|date}\n"
  • Output the description set to a fill-width of 30:

    $ hg log -r 0 --template "{fill(desc, 30)}"
  • Use a conditional to test for the default branch:

    $ hg log -r 0 --template "{ifeq(branch, 'default', 'on the main branch',
    'on branch {branch}')}\n"
  • Append a newline if not empty:

    $ hg tip --template "{if(author, '{author}\n')}"
  • Label the output for use with the color extension:

    $ hg log -r 0 --template "{label('changeset.{phase}', node|short)}\n"
  • Invert the firstline filter, i.e. everything but the first line:

    $ hg log -r 0 --template "{sub(r'^.*\n?\n?', '', desc)}\n"
  • Display the contents of the 'extra' field, one per line:

    $ hg log -r 0 --template "{join(extras, '\n')}\n"
  • Mark the active bookmark with '*':

    $ hg log --template "{bookmarks % '{bookmark}{ifeq(bookmark, active, '*')} '}\n"
  • Find the previous release candidate tag, the distance and changes since the tag:

    $ hg log -r . --template "{latesttag('re:^.*-rc$') % '{tag}, {changes}, {distance}'}\n"
  • Mark the working copy parent with '@':

    $ hg log --template "{ifcontains(rev, revset('.'), '@')}\n"
  • Show details of parent revisions:

    $ hg log --template "{revset('parents(%d)', rev) % '{desc|firstline}\n'}"
  • Show only commit descriptions that start with "template":

    $ hg log --template "{startswith('template', firstline(desc))}\n"
  • Print the first word of each line of a commit message:

    $ hg log --template "{word(0, desc)}\n"

URL Paths

Valid URLs are of the form:

local/filesystem/path[#revision]
file://local/filesystem/path[#revision]
http://[user[:pass]@]host[:port]/[path][#revision]
https://[user[:pass]@]host[:port]/[path][#revision]
ssh://[user@]host[:port]/[path][#revision]

Paths in the local filesystem can either point to Mercurial repositories or to bundle files (as created by hg bundle or hg incoming --bundle). See also hg help paths.

An optional identifier after # indicates a particular branch, tag, or changeset to use from the remote repository. See also hg help revisions.

Some features, such as pushing to http:// and https:// URLs are only possible if the feature is explicitly enabled on the remote Mercurial server.

Note that the security of HTTPS URLs depends on proper configuration of web.cacerts.

Some notes about using SSH with Mercurial:

These URLs can all be stored in your configuration file with path aliases under the [paths] section like so:

[paths]
alias1 = URL1
alias2 = URL2
...

You can then use the alias for any command that uses a URL (for example hg pull alias1 will be treated as hg pull URL1).

Two path aliases are special because they are used as defaults when you do not provide the URL to a command:

default:

When you create a repository with hg clone, the clone command saves the location of the source repository as the new repository's 'default' path. This is then used when you omit path from push- and pull-like commands (including incoming and outgoing).

default-push:

The push command will look for a path named 'default-push', and prefer it over 'default' if both are defined.

Extensions

This section contains help for extensions that are distributed together with Mercurial. Help for other extensions is available in the help system.

acl

hooks for controlling repository access

This hook makes it possible to allow or deny write access to given branches and paths of a repository when receiving incoming changesets via pretxnchangegroup and pretxncommit.

The authorization is matched based on the local user name on the system where the hook runs, and not the committer of the original changeset (since the latter is merely informative).

The acl hook is best used along with a restricted shell like hgsh, preventing authenticating users from doing anything other than pushing or pulling. The hook is not safe to use if users have interactive shell access, as they can then disable the hook. Nor is it safe if remote users share an account, because then there is no way to distinguish them.

The order in which access checks are performed is:

1.

Deny  list for branches (section acl.deny.branches)

2.

Allow list for branches (section acl.allow.branches)

3.

Deny  list for paths    (section acl.deny)

4.

Allow list for paths    (section acl.allow)

The allow and deny sections take key-value pairs.

Branch-based Access Control

Use the acl.deny.branches and acl.allow.branches sections to have branch-based access control. Keys in these sections can be either:

  • a branch name, or
  • an asterisk, to match any branch;

The corresponding values can be either:

  • a comma-separated list containing users and groups, or
  • an asterisk, to match anyone;

You can add the "!" prefix to a user or group name to invert the sense of the match.

Path-based Access Control

Use the acl.deny and acl.allow sections to have path-based access control. Keys in these sections accept a subtree pattern (with a glob syntax by default). The corresponding values follow the same syntax as the other sections above.

Groups

Group names must be prefixed with an @ symbol. Specifying a group name has the same effect as specifying all the users in that group.

You can define group members in the acl.groups section. If a group name is not defined there, and Mercurial is running under a Unix-like system, the list of users will be taken from the OS. Otherwise, an exception will be raised.

Example Configuration

[hooks]

# Use this if you want to check access restrictions at commit time
pretxncommit.acl = python:hgext.acl.hook

# Use this if you want to check access restrictions for pull, push,
# bundle and serve.
pretxnchangegroup.acl = python:hgext.acl.hook

[acl]
# Allow or deny access for incoming changes only if their source is
# listed here, let them pass otherwise. Source is "serve" for all
# remote access (http or ssh), "push", "pull" or "bundle" when the
# related commands are run locally.
# Default: serve
sources = serve

[acl.deny.branches]

# Everyone is denied to the frozen branch:
frozen-branch = *

# A bad user is denied on all branches:
* = bad-user

[acl.allow.branches]

# A few users are allowed on branch-a:
branch-a = user-1, user-2, user-3

# Only one user is allowed on branch-b:
branch-b = user-1

# The super user is allowed on any branch:
* = super-user

# Everyone is allowed on branch-for-tests:
branch-for-tests = *

[acl.deny]
# This list is checked first. If a match is found, acl.allow is not
# checked. All users are granted access if acl.deny is not present.
# Format for both lists: glob pattern = user, ..., @group, ...

# To match everyone, use an asterisk for the user:
# my/glob/pattern = *

# user6 will not have write access to any file:
** = user6

# Group "hg-denied" will not have write access to any file:
** = @hg-denied

# Nobody will be able to change "DONT-TOUCH-THIS.txt", despite
# everyone being able to change all other files. See below.
src/main/resources/DONT-TOUCH-THIS.txt = *

[acl.allow]
# if acl.allow is not present, all users are allowed by default
# empty acl.allow = no users allowed

# User "doc_writer" has write access to any file under the "docs"
# folder:
docs/** = doc_writer

# User "jack" and group "designers" have write access to any file
# under the "images" folder:
images/** = jack, @designers

# Everyone (except for "user6" and "@hg-denied" - see acl.deny above)
# will have write access to any file under the "resources" folder
# (except for 1 file. See acl.deny):
src/main/resources/** = *

.hgtags = release_engineer

Examples using the ! prefix

Suppose there's a branch that only a given user (or group) should be able to push to, and you don't want to restrict access to any other branch that may be created.

The "!" prefix allows you to prevent anyone except a given user or group to push changesets in a given branch or path.

In the examples below, we will: 1) Deny access to branch "ring" to anyone but user "gollum" 2) Deny access to branch "lake" to anyone but members of the group "hobbit" 3) Deny access to a file to anyone but user "gollum"

[acl.allow.branches]
# Empty

[acl.deny.branches]

# 1) only 'gollum' can commit to branch 'ring';
# 'gollum' and anyone else can still commit to any other branch.
ring = !gollum

# 2) only members of the group 'hobbit' can commit to branch 'lake';
# 'hobbit' members and anyone else can still commit to any other branch.
lake = !@hobbit

# You can also deny access based on file paths:

[acl.allow]
# Empty

[acl.deny]
# 3) only 'gollum' can change the file below;
# 'gollum' and anyone else can still change any other file.
/misty/mountains/cave/ring = !gollum

automv

check for unrecorded moves at commit time (EXPERIMENTAL)

This extension checks at commit/amend time if any of the committed files comes from an unrecorded mv.

The threshold at which a file is considered a move can be set with the automv.similarity config option. This option takes a percentage between 0 (disabled) and 100 (files must be identical), the default is 95.

blackbox

log repository events to a blackbox for debugging

Logs event information to .hg/blackbox.log to help debug and diagnose problems. The events that get logged can be configured via the blackbox.track config key.

Examples:

[blackbox]
track = *
# dirty is *EXPENSIVE* (slow);
# each log entry indicates `+` if the repository is dirty, like :hg:`id`.
dirty = True
# record the source of log messages
logsource = True

[blackbox]
track = command, commandfinish, commandexception, exthook, pythonhook

[blackbox]
track = incoming

[blackbox]
# limit the size of a log file
maxsize = 1.5 MB
# rotate up to N log files when the current one gets too big
maxfiles = 3

Commands

blackbox

view the recent repository events:

hg blackbox [OPTION]...

view the recent repository events

Options:

-l,--limit <VALUE>

the number of events to show (default: 10)

bugzilla

hooks for integrating with the Bugzilla bug tracker

This hook extension adds comments on bugs in Bugzilla when changesets that refer to bugs by Bugzilla ID are seen. The comment is formatted using the Mercurial template mechanism.

The bug references can optionally include an update for Bugzilla of the hours spent working on the bug. Bugs can also be marked fixed.

Four basic modes of access to Bugzilla are provided:

1.

Access via the Bugzilla REST-API. Requires bugzilla 5.0 or later.

2.

Access via the Bugzilla XMLRPC interface. Requires Bugzilla 3.4 or later.

3.

Check data via the Bugzilla XMLRPC interface and submit bug change via email to Bugzilla email interface. Requires Bugzilla 3.4 or later.

4.

Writing directly to the Bugzilla database. Only Bugzilla installations using MySQL are supported. Requires Python MySQLdb.

Writing directly to the database is susceptible to schema changes, and relies on a Bugzilla contrib script to send out bug change notification emails. This script runs as the user running Mercurial, must be run on the host with the Bugzilla install, and requires permission to read Bugzilla configuration details and the necessary MySQL user and password to have full access rights to the Bugzilla database. For these reasons this access mode is now considered deprecated, and will not be updated for new Bugzilla versions going forward. Only adding comments is supported in this access mode.

Access via XMLRPC needs a Bugzilla username and password to be specified in the configuration. Comments are added under that username. Since the configuration must be readable by all Mercurial users, it is recommended that the rights of that user are restricted in Bugzilla to the minimum necessary to add comments. Marking bugs fixed requires Bugzilla 4.0 and later.

Access via XMLRPC/email uses XMLRPC to query Bugzilla, but sends email to the Bugzilla email interface to submit comments to bugs. The From: address in the email is set to the email address of the Mercurial user, so the comment appears to come from the Mercurial user. In the event that the Mercurial user email is not recognized by Bugzilla as a Bugzilla user, the email associated with the Bugzilla username used to log into Bugzilla is used instead as the source of the comment. Marking bugs fixed works on all supported Bugzilla versions.

Access via the REST-API needs either a Bugzilla username and password or an apikey specified in the configuration. Comments are made under the given username or the user associated with the apikey in Bugzilla.

Configuration items common to all access modes:

bugzilla.version

The access type to use. Values recognized are:

restapi

Bugzilla REST-API, Bugzilla 5.0 and later.

xmlrpc

Bugzilla XMLRPC interface.

xmlrpc+email

Bugzilla XMLRPC and email interfaces.

3.0

MySQL access, Bugzilla 3.0 and later.

2.18

MySQL access, Bugzilla 2.18 and up to but not including 3.0.

2.16

MySQL access, Bugzilla 2.16 and up to but not including 2.18.

bugzilla.regexp

Regular expression to match bug IDs for update in changeset commit message. It must contain one "()" named group <ids> containing the bug IDs separated by non-digit characters. It may also contain a named group <hours> with a floating-point number giving the hours worked on the bug. If no named groups are present, the first "()" group is assumed to contain the bug IDs, and work time is not updated. The default expression matches Bug 1234, Bug no. 1234, Bug number 1234, Bugs 1234,5678, Bug 1234 and 5678 and variations thereof, followed by an hours number prefixed by h or hours, e.g. hours 1.5. Matching is case insensitive.

bugzilla.fixregexp

Regular expression to match bug IDs for marking fixed in changeset commit message. This must contain a "()" named group <ids>` containing the bug IDs separated by non-digit characters. It may also contain a named group ``<hours> with a floating-point number giving the hours worked on the bug. If no named groups are present, the first "()" group is assumed to contain the bug IDs, and work time is not updated. The default expression matches Fixes 1234, Fixes bug 1234, Fixes bugs 1234,5678, Fixes 1234 and 5678 and variations thereof, followed by an hours number prefixed by h or hours, e.g. hours 1.5. Matching is case insensitive.

bugzilla.fixstatus

The status to set a bug to when marking fixed. Default RESOLVED.

bugzilla.fixresolution

The resolution to set a bug to when marking fixed. Default FIXED.

bugzilla.style

The style file to use when formatting comments.

bugzilla.template

Template to use when formatting comments. Overrides style if specified. In addition to the usual Mercurial keywords, the extension specifies:

{bug}

The Bugzilla bug ID.

{root}

The full pathname of the Mercurial repository.

{webroot}

Stripped pathname of the Mercurial repository.

{hgweb}

Base URL for browsing Mercurial repositories.

Default changeset {node|short} in repo {root} refers to bug {bug}.\ndetails:\n\t{desc|tabindent}

bugzilla.strip

The number of path separator characters to strip from the front of the Mercurial repository path ({root} in templates) to produce {webroot}. For example, a repository with {root} /var/local/my-project with a strip of 2 gives a value for {webroot} of my-project. Default 0.

web.baseurl

Base URL for browsing Mercurial repositories. Referenced from templates as {hgweb}.

Configuration items common to XMLRPC+email and MySQL access modes:

bugzilla.usermap

Path of file containing Mercurial committer email to Bugzilla user email mappings. If specified, the file should contain one mapping per line:

committer = Bugzilla user

See also the [usermap] section.

The [usermap] section is used to specify mappings of Mercurial committer email to Bugzilla user email. See also bugzilla.usermap. Contains entries of the form committer = Bugzilla user.

XMLRPC and REST-API access mode configuration:

bugzilla.bzurl

The base URL for the Bugzilla installation. Default http://localhost/bugzilla.

bugzilla.user

The username to use to log into Bugzilla via XMLRPC. Default bugs.

bugzilla.password

The password for Bugzilla login.

REST-API access mode uses the options listed above as well as:

bugzilla.apikey

An apikey generated on the Bugzilla instance for api access. Using an apikey removes the need to store the user and password options.

XMLRPC+email access mode uses the XMLRPC access mode configuration items, and also:

bugzilla.bzemail

The Bugzilla email address.

In addition, the Mercurial email settings must be configured. See the documentation in hgrc(5), sections [email] and [smtp].

MySQL access mode configuration:

bugzilla.host

Hostname of the MySQL server holding the Bugzilla database. Default localhost.

bugzilla.db

Name of the Bugzilla database in MySQL. Default bugs.

bugzilla.user

Username to use to access MySQL server. Default bugs.

bugzilla.password

Password to use to access MySQL server.

bugzilla.timeout

Database connection timeout (seconds). Default 5.

bugzilla.bzuser

Fallback Bugzilla user name to record comments with, if changeset committer cannot be found as a Bugzilla user.

bugzilla.bzdir

Bugzilla install directory. Used by default notify. Default /var/www/html/bugzilla.

bugzilla.notify

The command to run to get Bugzilla to send bug change notification emails. Substitutes from a map with 3 keys, bzdir, id (bug id) and user (committer bugzilla email). Default depends on version; from 2.18 it is "cd %(bzdir)s && perl -T contrib/sendbugmail.pl %(id)s %(user)s".

Activating the extension:

[extensions]
bugzilla =

[hooks]
# run bugzilla hook on every change pulled or pushed in here
incoming.bugzilla = python:hgext.bugzilla.hook

Example configurations:

XMLRPC example configuration. This uses the Bugzilla at http://my-project.org/bugzilla, logging in as user bugmail@my-project.org with password plugh. It is used with a collection of Mercurial repositories in /var/local/hg/repos/, with a web interface at http://my-project.org/hg.

[bugzilla]
bzurl=http://my-project.org/bugzilla
user=bugmail@my-project.org
password=plugh
version=xmlrpc
template=Changeset {node|short} in {root|basename}.
         {hgweb}/{webroot}/rev/{node|short}\n
         {desc}\n
strip=5

[web]
baseurl=http://my-project.org/hg

XMLRPC+email example configuration. This uses the Bugzilla at http://my-project.org/bugzilla, logging in as user bugmail@my-project.org with password plugh. It is used with a collection of Mercurial repositories in /var/local/hg/repos/, with a web interface at http://my-project.org/hg. Bug comments are sent to the Bugzilla email address bugzilla@my-project.org.

[bugzilla]
bzurl=http://my-project.org/bugzilla
user=bugmail@my-project.org
password=plugh
version=xmlrpc+email
bzemail=bugzilla@my-project.org
template=Changeset {node|short} in {root|basename}.
         {hgweb}/{webroot}/rev/{node|short}\n
         {desc}\n
strip=5

[web]
baseurl=http://my-project.org/hg

[usermap]
user@emaildomain.com=user.name@bugzilladomain.com

MySQL example configuration. This has a local Bugzilla 3.2 installation in /opt/bugzilla-3.2. The MySQL database is on localhost, the Bugzilla database name is bugs and MySQL is accessed with MySQL username bugs password XYZZY. It is used with a collection of Mercurial repositories in /var/local/hg/repos/, with a web interface at http://my-project.org/hg.

[bugzilla]
host=localhost
password=XYZZY
version=3.0
bzuser=unknown@domain.com
bzdir=/opt/bugzilla-3.2
template=Changeset {node|short} in {root|basename}.
         {hgweb}/{webroot}/rev/{node|short}\n
         {desc}\n
strip=5

[web]
baseurl=http://my-project.org/hg

[usermap]
user@emaildomain.com=user.name@bugzilladomain.com

All the above add a comment to the Bugzilla bug record of the form:

Changeset 3b16791d6642 in repository-name.
http://my-project.org/hg/repository-name/rev/3b16791d6642

Changeset commit comment. Bug 1234.

censor

erase file content at a given revision

The censor command instructs Mercurial to erase all content of a file at a given revision without updating the changeset hash. This allows existing history to remain valid while preventing future clones/pulls from receiving the erased data.

Typical uses for censor are due to security or legal requirements, including:

* Passwords, private keys, cryptographic material
* Licensed data/code/libraries for which the license has expired
* Personally Identifiable Information or other private data

Censored nodes can interrupt mercurial's typical operation whenever the excised data needs to be materialized. Some commands, like hg cat/hg revert, simply fail when asked to produce censored data. Others, like hg verify and hg update, must be capable of tolerating censored data to continue to function in a meaningful way. Such commands only tolerate censored file revisions if they are allowed by the "censor.policy=ignore" config option.

Commands

censor

hg censor -r REV [-t TEXT] [FILE]

Options:

-r,--rev <REV>

censor file from specified revision

-t,--tombstone <TEXT>

replacement tombstone data

children

command to display child changesets (DEPRECATED)

This extension is deprecated. You should use hg log -r "children(REV)" instead.

Commands

children

show the children of the given or working directory revision:

hg children [-r REV] [FILE]

Print the children of the working directory's revisions. If a revision is given via -r/--rev, the children of that revision will be printed. If a file argument is given, revision in which the file was last changed (after the working directory revision or the argument to --rev if given) is printed.

Please use hg log instead:

hg children => hg log -r "children()"
hg children -r REV => hg log -r "children(REV)"

See hg help log and hg help revsets.children.

Options:

-r,--rev <REV>

show children of the specified revision

--style <STYLE>

display using template map file (DEPRECATED)

-T,--template <TEMPLATE>

display with template

churn

command to display statistics about repository history

Commands

churn

histogram of changes to the repository:

hg churn [-d DATE] [-r REV] [--aliases FILE] [FILE]

This command will display a histogram representing the number of changed lines or revisions, grouped according to the given template. The default template will group changes by author. The --dateformat option may be used to group the results by date instead.

Statistics are based on the number of changed lines, or alternatively the number of matching revisions if the --changesets option is specified.

Examples:

# display count of changed lines for every committer
hg churn -T "{author|email}"

# display daily activity graph
hg churn -f "%H" -s -c

# display activity of developers by month
hg churn -f "%Y-%m" -s -c

# display count of lines changed in every year
hg churn -f "%Y" -s

It is possible to map alternate email addresses to a main address by providing a file using the following format:

<alias email> = <actual email>

Such a file may be specified with the --aliases option, otherwise a .hgchurn file will be looked for in the working directory root. Aliases will be split from the rightmost "=".

Options:

-r,--rev <REV[+]>

count rate for the specified revision or revset

-d,--date <DATE>

count rate for revisions matching date spec

-t,--oldtemplate <TEMPLATE>

template to group changesets (DEPRECATED)

-T,--template <TEMPLATE>

template to group changesets (default: {author|email})

-f,--dateformat <FORMAT>

strftime-compatible format for grouping by date

-c, --changesets

count rate by number of changesets

-s, --sort

sort by key (default: sort by count)

--diffstat

display added/removed lines separately

--aliases <FILE>

file with email aliases

-I,--include <PATTERN[+]>

include names matching the given patterns

-X,--exclude <PATTERN[+]>

exclude names matching the given patterns

[+] marked option can be specified multiple times

clonebundles

advertise pre-generated bundles to seed clones

"clonebundles" is a server-side extension used to advertise the existence of pre-generated, externally hosted bundle files to clients that are cloning so that cloning can be faster, more reliable, and require less resources on the server.

Cloning can be a CPU and I/O intensive operation on servers. Traditionally, the server, in response to a client's request to clone, dynamically generates a bundle containing the entire repository content and sends it to the client. There is no caching on the server and the server will have to redundantly generate the same outgoing bundle in response to each clone request. For servers with large repositories or with high clone volume, the load from clones can make scaling the server challenging and costly.

This extension provides server operators the ability to offload potentially expensive clone load to an external service. Here's how it works.

1.

A server operator establishes a mechanism for making bundle files available on a hosting service where Mercurial clients can fetch them.

2.

A manifest file listing available bundle URLs and some optional metadata is added to the Mercurial repository on the server.

3.

A client initiates a clone against a clone bundles aware server.

4.

The client sees the server is advertising clone bundles and fetches the manifest listing available bundles.

5.

The client filters and sorts the available bundles based on what it supports and prefers.

6.

The client downloads and applies an available bundle from the server-specified URL.

7.

The client reconnects to the original server and performs the equivalent of hg pull to retrieve all repository data not in the bundle. (The repository could have been updated between when the bundle was created and when the client started the clone.)

Instead of the server generating full repository bundles for every clone request, it generates full bundles once and they are subsequently reused to bootstrap new clones. The server may still transfer data at clone time. However, this is only data that has been added/changed since the bundle was created. For large, established repositories, this can reduce server load for clones to less than 1% of original.

To work, this extension requires the following of server operators:

  • Generating bundle files of repository content (typically periodically, such as once per day).
  • A file server that clients have network access to and that Python knows how to talk to through its normal URL handling facility (typically an HTTP server).
  • A process for keeping the bundles manifest in sync with available bundle files.

Strictly speaking, using a static file hosting server isn't required: a server operator could use a dynamic service for retrieving bundle data. However, static file hosting services are simple and scalable and should be sufficient for most needs.

Bundle files can be generated with the hg bundle command. Typically hg bundle --all is used to produce a bundle of the entire repository.

hg debugcreatestreamclonebundle can be used to produce a special streaming clone bundle. These are bundle files that are extremely efficient to produce and consume (read: fast). However, they are larger than traditional bundle formats and require that clients support the exact set of repository data store formats in use by the repository that created them. Typically, a newer server can serve data that is compatible with older clients. However, streaming clone bundles don't have this guarantee. Server operators need to be aware that newer versions of Mercurial may produce streaming clone bundles incompatible with older Mercurial versions.

A server operator is responsible for creating a .hg/clonebundles.manifest file containing the list of available bundle files suitable for seeding clones. If this file does not exist, the repository will not advertise the existence of clone bundles when clients connect.

The manifest file contains a newline (n) delimited list of entries.

Each line in this file defines an available bundle. Lines have the format:

<URL> [<key>=<value>[ <key>=<value>]]

That is, a URL followed by an optional, space-delimited list of key=value pairs describing additional properties of this bundle. Both keys and values are URI encoded.

Keys in UPPERCASE are reserved for use by Mercurial and are defined below. All non-uppercase keys can be used by site installations. An example use for custom properties is to use the datacenter attribute to define which data center a file is hosted in. Clients could then prefer a server in the data center closest to them.

The following reserved keys are currently defined:

BUNDLESPEC

A "bundle specification" string that describes the type of the bundle.

These are string values that are accepted by the "--type" argument of hg bundle.

The values are parsed in strict mode, which means they must be of the "<compression>-<type>" form. See mercurial.exchange.parsebundlespec() for more details.

hg debugbundle --spec can be used to print the bundle specification string for a bundle file. The output of this command can be used verbatim for the value of BUNDLESPEC (it is already escaped).

Clients will automatically filter out specifications that are unknown or unsupported so they won't attempt to download something that likely won't apply.

The actual value doesn't impact client behavior beyond filtering: clients will still sniff the bundle type from the header of downloaded files.

Use of this key is highly recommended, as it allows clients to easily skip unsupported bundles. If this key is not defined, an old client may attempt to apply a bundle that it is incapable of reading.

REQUIRESNI

Whether Server Name Indication (SNI) is required to connect to the URL. SNI allows servers to use multiple certificates on the same IP. It is somewhat common in CDNs and other hosting providers. Older Python versions do not support SNI. Defining this attribute enables clients with older Python versions to filter this entry without experiencing an opaque SSL failure at connection time.

If this is defined, it is important to advertise a non-SNI fallback URL or clients running old Python releases may not be able to clone with the clonebundles facility.

Value should be "true".

Manifests can contain multiple entries. Assuming metadata is defined, clients will filter entries from the manifest that they don't support. The remaining entries are optionally sorted by client preferences (experimental.clonebundleprefers config option). The client then attempts to fetch the bundle at the first URL in the remaining list.

Errors when downloading a bundle will fail the entire clone operation: clients do not automatically fall back to a traditional clone. The reason for this is that if a server is using clone bundles, it is probably doing so because the feature is necessary to help it scale. In other words, there is an assumption that clone load will be offloaded to another service and that the Mercurial server isn't responsible for serving this clone load. If that other service experiences issues and clients start mass falling back to the original Mercurial server, the added clone load could overwhelm the server due to unexpected load and effectively take it offline. Not having clients automatically fall back to cloning from the original server mitigates this scenario.

Because there is no automatic Mercurial server fallback on failure of the bundle hosting service, it is important for server operators to view the bundle hosting service as an extension of the Mercurial server in terms of availability and service level agreements: if the bundle hosting service goes down, so does the ability for clients to clone. Note: clients will see a message informing them how to bypass the clone bundles facility when a failure occurs. So server operators should prepare for some people to follow these instructions when a failure occurs, thus driving more load to the original Mercurial server when the bundle hosting service fails.

color

enable Mercurial color mode (DEPRECATED)

This extension enables Mercurial color mode. The feature is now directly available in Mercurial core. You can access it using:

[ui]
color = auto

See hg help color for details.

convert

import revisions from foreign VCS repositories into Mercurial

Commands

convert

convert a foreign SCM repository to a Mercurial one.:

hg convert [OPTION]... SOURCE [DEST [REVMAP]]

Accepted source formats [identifiers]:

  • Mercurial [hg]
  • CVS [cvs]
  • Darcs [darcs]
  • git [git]
  • Subversion [svn]
  • Monotone [mtn]
  • GNU Arch [gnuarch]
  • Bazaar [bzr]
  • Perforce [p4]

Accepted destination formats [identifiers]:

  • Mercurial [hg]
  • Subversion [svn] (history on branches is not preserved)

If no revision is given, all revisions will be converted. Otherwise, convert will only import up to the named revision (given in a format understood by the source).

If no destination directory name is specified, it defaults to the basename of the source with -hg appended. If the destination repository doesn't exist, it will be created.

By default, all sources except Mercurial will use --branchsort. Mercurial uses --sourcesort to preserve original revision numbers order. Sort modes have the following effects:

--branchsort

convert from parent to child revision when possible, which means branches are usually converted one after the other. It generates more compact repositories.

--datesort

sort revisions by date. Converted repositories have good-looking changelogs but are often an order of magnitude larger than the same ones generated by --branchsort.

--sourcesort

try to preserve source revisions order, only supported by Mercurial sources.

--closesort

try to move closed revisions as close as possible to parent branches, only supported by Mercurial sources.

If REVMAP isn't given, it will be put in a default location (<dest>/.hg/shamap by default). The REVMAP is a simple text file that maps each source commit ID to the destination ID for that revision, like so:

<source ID> <destination ID>

If the file doesn't exist, it's automatically created. It's updated on each commit copied, so hg convert can be interrupted and can be run repeatedly to copy new commits.

The authormap is a simple text file that maps each source commit author to a destination commit author. It is handy for source SCMs that use unix logins to identify authors (e.g.: CVS). One line per author mapping and the line format is:

source author = destination author

Empty lines and lines starting with a # are ignored.

The filemap is a file that allows filtering and remapping of files and directories. Each line can contain one of the following directives:

include path/to/file-or-dir

exclude path/to/file-or-dir

rename path/to/source path/to/destination

Comment lines start with #. A specified path matches if it equals the full relative name of a file or one of its parent directories. The include or exclude directive with the longest matching path applies, so line order does not matter.

The include directive causes a file, or all files under a directory, to be included in the destination repository. The default if there are no include statements is to include everything. If there are any include statements, nothing else is included. The exclude directive causes files or directories to be omitted. The rename directive renames a file or directory if it is converted. To rename from a subdirectory into the root of the repository, use . as the path to rename to.

--full will make sure the converted changesets contain exactly the right files with the right content. It will make a full conversion of all files, not just the ones that have changed. Files that already are correct will not be changed. This can be used to apply filemap changes when converting incrementally. This is currently only supported for Mercurial and Subversion.

The splicemap is a file that allows insertion of synthetic history, letting you specify the parents of a revision. This is useful if you want to e.g. give a Subversion merge two parents, or graft two disconnected series of history together. Each entry contains a key, followed by a space, followed by one or two comma-separated values:

key parent1, parent2

The key is the revision ID in the source revision control system whose parents should be modified (same format as a key in .hg/shamap). The values are the revision IDs (in either the source or destination revision control system) that should be used as the new parents for that node. For example, if you have merged "release-1.0" into "trunk", then you should specify the revision on "trunk" as the first parent and the one on the "release-1.0" branch as the second.

The branchmap is a file that allows you to rename a branch when it is being brought in from whatever external repository. When used in conjunction with a splicemap, it allows for a powerful combination to help fix even the most badly mismanaged repositories and turn them into nicely structured Mercurial repositories. The branchmap contains lines of the form:

original_branch_name new_branch_name

where "original_branch_name" is the name of the branch in the source repository, and "new_branch_name" is the name of the branch is the destination repository. No whitespace is allowed in the branch names. This can be used to (for instance) move code in one repository from "default" to a named branch.

Mercurial Source

The Mercurial source recognizes the following configuration options, which you can set on the command line with --config:

convert.hg.ignoreerrors

ignore integrity errors when reading. Use it to fix Mercurial repositories with missing revlogs, by converting from and to Mercurial. Default is False.

convert.hg.saverev

store original revision ID in changeset (forces target IDs to change). It takes a boolean argument and defaults to False.

convert.hg.startrev

specify the initial Mercurial revision. The default is 0.

convert.hg.revs

revset specifying the source revisions to convert.

CVS Source

CVS source will use a sandbox (i.e. a checked-out copy) from CVS to indicate the starting point of what will be converted. Direct access to the repository files is not needed, unless of course the repository is :local:. The conversion uses the top level directory in the sandbox to find the CVS repository, and then uses CVS rlog commands to find files to convert. This means that unless a filemap is given, all files under the starting directory will be converted, and that any directory reorganization in the CVS sandbox is ignored.

The following options can be used with --config:

convert.cvsps.cache

Set to False to disable remote log caching, for testing and debugging purposes. Default is True.

convert.cvsps.fuzz

Specify the maximum time (in seconds) that is allowed between commits with identical user and log message in a single changeset. When very large files were checked in as part of a changeset then the default may not be long enough. The default is 60.

convert.cvsps.mergeto

Specify a regular expression to which commit log messages are matched. If a match occurs, then the conversion process will insert a dummy revision merging the branch on which this log message occurs to the branch indicated in the regex. Default is {{mergetobranch ([-\w]+)}}

convert.cvsps.mergefrom

Specify a regular expression to which commit log messages are matched. If a match occurs, then the conversion process will add the most recent revision on the branch indicated in the regex as the second parent of the changeset. Default is {{mergefrombranch ([-\w]+)}}

convert.localtimezone

use local time (as determined by the TZ environment variable) for changeset date/times. The default is False (use UTC).

hooks.cvslog

Specify a Python function to be called at the end of gathering the CVS log. The function is passed a list with the log entries, and can modify the entries in-place, or add or delete them.

hooks.cvschangesets

Specify a Python function to be called after the changesets are calculated from the CVS log. The function is passed a list with the changeset entries, and can modify the changesets in-place, or add or delete them.

An additional "debugcvsps" Mercurial command allows the builtin changeset merging code to be run without doing a conversion. Its parameters and output are similar to that of cvsps 2.1. Please see the command help for more details.

Subversion Source

Subversion source detects classical trunk/branches/tags layouts. By default, the supplied svn://repo/path/ source URL is converted as a single branch. If svn://repo/path/trunk exists it replaces the default branch. If svn://repo/path/branches exists, its subdirectories are listed as possible branches. If svn://repo/path/tags exists, it is looked for tags referencing converted branches. Default trunk, branches and tags values can be overridden with following options. Set them to paths relative to the source URL, or leave them blank to disable auto detection.

The following options can be set with --config:

convert.svn.branches

specify the directory containing branches. The default is branches.

convert.svn.tags

specify the directory containing tags. The default is tags.

convert.svn.trunk

specify the name of the trunk branch. The default is trunk.

convert.localtimezone

use local time (as determined by the TZ environment variable) for changeset date/times. The default is False (use UTC).

Source history can be retrieved starting at a specific revision, instead of being integrally converted. Only single branch conversions are supported.

convert.svn.startrev

specify start Subversion revision number. The default is 0.

Git Source

The Git importer converts commits from all reachable branches (refs in refs/heads) and remotes (refs in refs/remotes) to Mercurial. Branches are converted to bookmarks with the same name, with the leading 'refs/heads' stripped. Git submodules are converted to Git subrepos in Mercurial.

The following options can be set with --config:

convert.git.similarity

specify how similar files modified in a commit must be to be imported as renames or copies, as a percentage between 0 (disabled) and 100 (files must be identical). For example, 90 means that a delete/add pair will be imported as a rename if more than 90% of the file hasn't changed. The default is 50.

convert.git.findcopiesharder

while detecting copies, look at all files in the working copy instead of just changed ones. This is very expensive for large projects, and is only effective when convert.git.similarity is greater than 0. The default is False.

convert.git.renamelimit

perform rename and copy detection up to this many changed files in a commit. Increasing this will make rename and copy detection more accurate but will significantly slow down computation on large projects. The option is only relevant if convert.git.similarity is greater than 0. The default is 400.

convert.git.committeractions

list of actions to take when processing author and committer values.

Git commits have separate author (who wrote the commit) and committer (who applied the commit) fields. Not all destinations support separate author and committer fields (including Mercurial). This config option controls what to do with these author and committer fields during conversion.

A value of messagedifferent will append a committer: ... line to the commit message if the Git committer is different from the author. The prefix of that line can be specified using the syntax messagedifferent=<prefix>. e.g. messagedifferent=git-committer:. When a prefix is specified, a space will always be inserted between the prefix and the value.

messagealways behaves like messagedifferent except it will always result in a committer: ... line being appended to the commit message. This value is mutually exclusive with messagedifferent.

dropcommitter will remove references to the committer. Only references to the author will remain. Actions that add references to the committer will have no effect when this is set.

replaceauthor will replace the value of the author field with the committer. Other actions that add references to the committer will still take effect when this is set.

The default is messagedifferent.

convert.git.extrakeys

list of extra keys from commit metadata to copy to the destination. Some Git repositories store extra metadata in commits. By default, this non-default metadata will be lost during conversion. Setting this config option can retain that metadata. Some built-in keys such as parent and branch are not allowed to be copied.

convert.git.remoteprefix

remote refs are converted as bookmarks with convert.git.remoteprefix as a prefix followed by a /. The default is 'remote'.

convert.git.saverev

whether to store the original Git commit ID in the metadata of the destination commit. The default is True.

convert.git.skipsubmodules

does not convert root level .gitmodules files or files with 160000 mode indicating a submodule. Default is False.

Perforce Source

The Perforce (P4) importer can be given a p4 depot path or a client specification as source. It will convert all files in the source to a flat Mercurial repository, ignoring labels, branches and integrations. Note that when a depot path is given you then usually should specify a target directory, because otherwise the target may be named ...-hg.

The following options can be set with --config:

convert.p4.encoding

specify the encoding to use when decoding standard output of the Perforce command line tool. The default is default system encoding.

convert.p4.startrev

specify initial Perforce revision (a Perforce changelist number).

Mercurial Destination

The Mercurial destination will recognize Mercurial subrepositories in the destination directory, and update the .hgsubstate file automatically if the destination subrepositories contain the <dest>/<sub>/.hg/shamap file. Converting a repository with subrepositories requires converting a single repository at a time, from the bottom up.

An example showing how to convert a repository with subrepositories:

# so convert knows the type when it sees a non empty destination
$ hg init converted

$ hg convert orig/sub1 converted/sub1
$ hg convert orig/sub2 converted/sub2
$ hg convert orig converted

The following options are supported:

convert.hg.clonebranches

dispatch source branches in separate clones. The default is False.

convert.hg.tagsbranch

branch name for tag revisions, defaults to default.

convert.hg.usebranchnames

preserve branch names. The default is True.

convert.hg.sourcename

records the given string as a 'convert_source' extra value on each commit made in the target repository. The default is None.

All Destinations

All destination types accept the following options:

convert.skiptags

does not convert tags from the source repo to the target repo. The default is False.

Options:

--authors <FILE>

username mapping filename (DEPRECATED) (use --authormap instead)

-s,--source-type <TYPE>

source repository type

-d,--dest-type <TYPE>

destination repository type

-r,--rev <REV[+]>

import up to source revision REV

-A,--authormap <FILE>

remap usernames using this file

--filemap <FILE>

remap file names using contents of file

--full

apply filemap changes by converting all files again

--splicemap <FILE>

splice synthesized history into place

--branchmap <FILE>

change branch names while converting

--branchsort

try to sort changesets by branches

--datesort

try to sort changesets by date

--sourcesort

preserve source changesets order

--closesort

try to reorder closed revisions

[+] marked option can be specified multiple times

eol

automatically manage newlines in repository files

This extension allows you to manage the type of line endings (CRLF or LF) that are used in the repository and in the local working directory. That way you can get CRLF line endings on Windows and LF on Unix/Mac, thereby letting everybody use their OS native line endings.

The extension reads its configuration from a versioned .hgeol configuration file found in the root of the working directory. The .hgeol file use the same syntax as all other Mercurial configuration files. It uses two sections, [patterns] and [repository].

The [patterns] section specifies how line endings should be converted between the working directory and the repository. The format is specified by a file pattern. The first match is used, so put more specific patterns first. The available line endings are LF, CRLF, and BIN.

Files with the declared format of CRLF or LF are always checked out and stored in the repository in that format and files declared to be binary (BIN) are left unchanged. Additionally, native is an alias for checking out in the platform's default line ending: LF on Unix (including Mac OS X) and CRLF on Windows. Note that BIN (do nothing to line endings) is Mercurial's default behavior; it is only needed if you need to override a later, more general pattern.

The optional [repository] section specifies the line endings to use for files stored in the repository. It has a single setting, native, which determines the storage line endings for files declared as native in the [patterns] section. It can be set to LF or CRLF. The default is LF. For example, this means that on Windows, files configured as native (CRLF by default) will be converted to LF when stored in the repository. Files declared as LF, CRLF, or BIN in the [patterns] section are always stored as-is in the repository.

Example versioned .hgeol file:

[patterns]
**.py = native
**.vcproj = CRLF
**.txt = native
Makefile = LF
**.jpg = BIN

[repository]
native = LF
Note

The rules will first apply when files are touched in the working directory, e.g. by updating to null and back to tip to touch all files.

The extension uses an optional [eol] section read from both the normal Mercurial configuration files and the .hgeol file, with the latter overriding the former. You can use that section to control the overall behavior. There are three settings:

  • eol.native (default os.linesep) can be set to LF or CRLF to override the default interpretation of native for checkout. This can be used with hg archive on Unix, say, to generate an archive where files have line endings for Windows.
  • eol.only-consistent (default True) can be set to False to make the extension convert files with inconsistent EOLs. Inconsistent means that there is both CRLF and LF present in the file. Such files are normally not touched under the assumption that they have mixed EOLs on purpose.
  • eol.fix-trailing-newline (default False) can be set to True to ensure that converted files end with a EOL character (either \n or \r\n as per the configured patterns).

The extension provides cleverencode: and cleverdecode: filters like the deprecated win32text extension does. This means that you can disable win32text and enable eol and your filters will still work. You only need to these filters until you have prepared a .hgeol file.

The win32text.forbid* hooks provided by the win32text extension have been unified into a single hook named eol.checkheadshook. The hook will lookup the expected line endings from the .hgeol file, which means you must migrate to a .hgeol file first before using the hook. eol.checkheadshook only checks heads, intermediate invalid revisions will be pushed. To forbid them completely, use the eol.checkallhook hook. These hooks are best used as pretxnchangegroup hooks.

See hg help patterns for more information about the glob patterns used.

extdiff

command to allow external programs to compare revisions

The extdiff Mercurial extension allows you to use external programs to compare revisions, or revision with working directory. The external diff programs are called with a configurable set of options and two non-option arguments: paths to directories containing snapshots of files to compare.

The extdiff extension also allows you to configure new diff commands, so you do not need to type hg extdiff -p kdiff3 always.

[extdiff]
# add new command that runs GNU diff(1) in 'context diff' mode
cdiff = gdiff -Nprc5
## or the old way:
#cmd.cdiff = gdiff
#opts.cdiff = -Nprc5

# add new command called meld, runs meld (no need to name twice).  If
# the meld executable is not available, the meld tool in [merge-tools]
# will be used, if available
meld =

# add new command called vimdiff, runs gvimdiff with DirDiff plugin
# (see http://www.vim.org/scripts/script.php?script_id=102) Non
# English user, be sure to put "let g:DirDiffDynamicDiffText = 1" in
# your .vimrc
vimdiff = gvim -f "+next" \
          "+execute 'DirDiff' fnameescape(argv(0)) fnameescape(argv(1))"

Tool arguments can include variables that are expanded at runtime:

$parent1, $plabel1 - filename, descriptive label of first parent
$child,   $clabel  - filename, descriptive label of child revision
$parent2, $plabel2 - filename, descriptive label of second parent
$root              - repository root
$parent is an alias for $parent1.

The extdiff extension will look in your [diff-tools] and [merge-tools] sections for diff tool arguments, when none are specified in [extdiff].

[extdiff]
kdiff3 =

[diff-tools]
kdiff3.diffargs=--L1 '$plabel1' --L2 '$clabel' $parent $child

You can use -I/-X and list of file or directory names like normal hg diff command. The extdiff extension makes snapshots of only needed files, so running the external diff program will actually be pretty fast (at least faster than having to compare the entire tree).

Commands

extdiff

use external program to diff repository (or selected files):

hg extdiff [OPT]... [FILE]...

Show differences between revisions for the specified files, using an external program. The default program used is diff, with default options "-Npru".

To select a different program, use the -p/--program option. The program will be passed the names of two directories to compare. To pass additional options to the program, use -o/--option. These will be passed before the names of the directories to compare.

When two revision arguments are given, then changes are shown between those revisions. If only one revision is specified then that revision is compared to the working directory, and, when no revisions are specified, the working directory files are compared to its parent.

Options:

-p,--program <CMD>

comparison program to run

-o,--option <OPT[+]>

pass option to comparison program

-r,--rev <REV[+]>

revision

-c,--change <REV>

change made by revision

--patch

compare patches for two revisions

-I,--include <PATTERN[+]>

include names matching the given patterns

-X,--exclude <PATTERN[+]>

exclude names matching the given patterns

-S, --subrepos

recurse into subrepositories

[+] marked option can be specified multiple times

factotum

http authentication with factotum

This extension allows the factotum(4) facility on Plan 9 from Bell Labs platforms to provide authentication information for HTTP access. Configuration entries specified in the auth section as well as authentication information provided in the repository URL are fully supported. If no prefix is specified, a value of "*" will be assumed.

By default, keys are specified as:

proto=pass service=hg prefix=<prefix> user=<username> !password=<password>

If the factotum extension is unable to read the required key, one will be requested interactively.

A configuration section is available to customize runtime behavior. By default, these entries are:

[factotum]
executable = /bin/auth/factotum
mountpoint = /mnt/factotum
service = hg

The executable entry defines the full path to the factotum binary. The mountpoint entry defines the path to the factotum file service. Lastly, the service entry controls the service name used when reading keys.

fetch

pull, update and merge in one command (DEPRECATED)

Commands

fetch

pull changes from a remote repository, merge new changes if needed.:

hg fetch [SOURCE]

This finds all changes from the repository at the specified path or URL and adds them to the local repository.

If the pulled changes add a new branch head, the head is automatically merged, and the result of the merge is committed. Otherwise, the working directory is updated to include the new changes.

When a merge is needed, the working directory is first updated to the newly pulled changes. Local changes are then merged into the pulled changes. To switch the merge order, use --switch-parent.

See hg help dates for a list of formats valid for -d/--date.

Returns 0 on success.

Options:

-r,--rev <REV[+]>

a specific revision you would like to pull

-e, --edit

invoke editor on commit messages

--force-editor

edit commit message (DEPRECATED)

--switch-parent

switch parents when merging

-m,--message <TEXT>

use text as commit message

-l,--logfile <FILE>

read commit message from file

-d,--date <DATE>

record the specified date as commit date

-u,--user <USER>

record the specified user as committer

-e,--ssh <CMD>

specify ssh command to use

--remotecmd <CMD>

specify hg command to run on the remote side

--insecure

do not verify server certificate (ignoring web.cacerts config)

[+] marked option can be specified multiple times

fsmonitor

Faster status operations with the Watchman file monitor (EXPERIMENTAL)

Integrates the file-watching program Watchman with Mercurial to produce faster status results.

On a particular Linux system, for a real-world repository with over 400,000 files hosted on ext4, vanilla hg status takes 1.3 seconds. On the same system, with fsmonitor it takes about 0.3 seconds.

fsmonitor requires no configuration -- it will tell Watchman about your repository as necessary. You'll need to install Watchman from https://facebook.github.io/watchman/ and make sure it is in your PATH.

The following configuration options exist:

[fsmonitor]
mode = {off, on, paranoid}

When mode = off, fsmonitor will disable itself (similar to not loading the extension at all). When mode = on, fsmonitor will be enabled (the default). When mode = paranoid, fsmonitor will query both Watchman and the filesystem, and ensure that the results are consistent.

[fsmonitor]
timeout = (float)

A value, in seconds, that determines how long fsmonitor will wait for Watchman to return results. Defaults to 2.0.

[fsmonitor]
blacklistusers = (list of userids)

A list of usernames for which fsmonitor will disable itself altogether.

[fsmonitor]
walk_on_invalidate = (boolean)

Whether or not to walk the whole repo ourselves when our cached state has been invalidated, for example when Watchman has been restarted or .hgignore rules have been changed. Walking the repo in that case can result in competing for I/O with Watchman. For large repos it is recommended to set this value to false. You may wish to set this to true if you have a very fast filesystem that can outpace the IPC overhead of getting the result data for the full repo from Watchman. Defaults to false.

fsmonitor is incompatible with the largefiles and eol extensions, and will disable itself if any of those are active.

gpg

commands to sign and verify changesets

Commands

sigcheck

verify all the signatures there may be for a particular revision:

hg sigcheck REV

verify all the signatures there may be for a particular revision

sign

add a signature for the current or given revision:

hg sign [OPTION]... [REV]...

If no revision is given, the parent of the working directory is used, or tip if no revision is checked out.

The gpg.cmd config setting can be used to specify the command to run. A default key can be specified with gpg.key.

See hg help dates for a list of formats valid for -d/--date.

Options:

-l, --local

make the signature local

-f, --force

sign even if the sigfile is modified

--no-commit

do not commit the sigfile after signing

-k,--key <ID>

the key id to sign with

-m,--message <TEXT>

use text as commit message

-e, --edit

invoke editor on commit messages

-d,--date <DATE>

record the specified date as commit date

-u,--user <USER>

record the specified user as committer

sigs

list signed changesets:

hg sigs

list signed changesets

graphlog

command to view revision graphs from a shell (DEPRECATED)

The functionality of this extension has been include in core Mercurial since version 2.3. Please use hg log -G ... instead.

This extension adds a --graph option to the incoming, outgoing and log commands. When this options is given, an ASCII representation of the revision graph is also shown.

Commands

glog

show revision history alongside an ASCII revision graph:

hg glog [OPTION]... [FILE]

Print a revision history alongside a revision graph drawn with ASCII characters.

Nodes printed as an @ character are parents of the working directory.

This is an alias to hg log -G.

Options:

-f, --follow

follow changeset history, or file history across copies and renames

--follow-first

only follow the first parent of merge changesets (DEPRECATED)

-d,--date <DATE>

show revisions matching date spec

-C, --copies

show copied files

-k,--keyword <TEXT[+]>

do case-insensitive search for a given text

-r,--rev <REV[+]>

show the specified revision or revset

--removed

include revisions where files were removed

-m, --only-merges

show only merges (DEPRECATED)

-u,--user <USER[+]>

revisions committed by user

--only-branch <BRANCH[+]>

show only changesets within the given named branch (DEPRECATED)

-b,--branch <BRANCH[+]>

show changesets within the given named branch

-P,--prune <REV[+]>

do not display revision or any of its ancestors

-p, --patch

show patch

-g, --git

use git extended diff format

-l,--limit <NUM>

limit number of changes displayed

-M, --no-merges

do not show merges

--stat

output diffstat-style summary of changes

-G, --graph

show the revision DAG

--style <STYLE>

display using template map file (DEPRECATED)

-T,--template <TEMPLATE>

display with template

-I,--include <PATTERN[+]>

include names matching the given patterns

-X,--exclude <PATTERN[+]>

exclude names matching the given patterns

[+] marked option can be specified multiple times

hgk

browse the repository in a graphical way

The hgk extension allows browsing the history of a repository in a graphical way. It requires Tcl/Tk version 8.4 or later. (Tcl/Tk is not distributed with Mercurial.)

hgk consists of two parts: a Tcl script that does the displaying and querying of information, and an extension to Mercurial named hgk.py, which provides hooks for hgk to get information. hgk can be found in the contrib directory, and the extension is shipped in the hgext repository, and needs to be enabled.

The hg view command will launch the hgk Tcl script. For this command to work, hgk must be in your search path. Alternately, you can specify the path to hgk in your configuration file:

[hgk]
path = /location/of/hgk

hgk can make use of the extdiff extension to visualize revisions. Assuming you had already configured extdiff vdiff command, just add:

[hgk]
vdiff=vdiff

Revisions context menu will now display additional entries to fire vdiff on hovered and selected revisions.

Commands

view

start interactive history viewer:

hg view [-l LIMIT] [REVRANGE]

start interactive history viewer

Options:

-l,--limit <NUM>

limit number of changes displayed

highlight

syntax highlighting for hgweb (requires Pygments)

It depends on the Pygments syntax highlighting library: http://pygments.org/

There are the following configuration options:

[web]
pygments_style = <style> (default: colorful)
highlightfiles = <fileset> (default: size('<5M'))
highlightonlymatchfilename = <bool> (default False)

highlightonlymatchfilename will only highlight files if their type could be identified by their filename. When this is not enabled (the default), Pygments will try very hard to identify the file type from content and any match (even matches with a low confidence score) will be used.

histedit

interactive history editing

With this extension installed, Mercurial gains one new command: histedit. Usage is as follows, assuming the following history:

@  3[tip]   7c2fd3b9020c   2009-04-27 18:04 -0500   durin42
|    Add delta
|
o  2   030b686bedc4   2009-04-27 18:04 -0500   durin42
|    Add gamma
|
o  1   c561b4e977df   2009-04-27 18:04 -0500   durin42
|    Add beta
|
o  0   d8d2fcd0e319   2009-04-27 18:04 -0500   durin42
     Add alpha

If you were to run hg histedit c561b4e977df, you would see the following file open in your editor:

pick c561b4e977df Add beta
pick 030b686bedc4 Add gamma
pick 7c2fd3b9020c Add delta

# Edit history between c561b4e977df and 7c2fd3b9020c
#
# Commits are listed from least to most recent
#
# Commands:
#  p, pick = use commit
#  e, edit = use commit, but stop for amending
#  f, fold = use commit, but combine it with the one above
#  r, roll = like fold, but discard this commit's description and date
#  d, drop = remove commit from history
#  m, mess = edit commit message without changing commit content
#

In this file, lines beginning with # are ignored. You must specify a rule for each revision in your history. For example, if you had meant to add gamma before beta, and then wanted to add delta in the same revision as beta, you would reorganize the file to look like this:

pick 030b686bedc4 Add gamma
pick c561b4e977df Add beta
fold 7c2fd3b9020c Add delta

# Edit history between c561b4e977df and 7c2fd3b9020c
#
# Commits are listed from least to most recent
#
# Commands:
#  p, pick = use commit
#  e, edit = use commit, but stop for amending
#  f, fold = use commit, but combine it with the one above
#  r, roll = like fold, but discard this commit's description and date
#  d, drop = remove commit from history
#  m, mess = edit commit message without changing commit content
#

At which point you close the editor and histedit starts working. When you specify a fold operation, histedit will open an editor when it folds those revisions together, offering you a chance to clean up the commit message:

Add beta
***
Add delta

Edit the commit message to your liking, then close the editor. The date used for the commit will be the later of the two commits' dates. For this example, let's assume that the commit message was changed to Add beta and delta. After histedit has run and had a chance to remove any old or temporary revisions it needed, the history looks like this:

@  2[tip]   989b4d060121   2009-04-27 18:04 -0500   durin42
|    Add beta and delta.
|
o  1   081603921c3f   2009-04-27 18:04 -0500   durin42
|    Add gamma
|
o  0   d8d2fcd0e319   2009-04-27 18:04 -0500   durin42
     Add alpha

Note that histedit does not remove any revisions (even its own temporary ones) until after it has completed all the editing operations, so it will probably perform several strip operations when it's done. For the above example, it had to run strip twice. Strip can be slow depending on a variety of factors, so you might need to be a little patient. You can choose to keep the original revisions by passing the --keep flag.

The edit operation will drop you back to a command prompt, allowing you to edit files freely, or even use hg record to commit some changes as a separate commit. When you're done, any remaining uncommitted changes will be committed as well. When done, run hg histedit --continue to finish this step. If there are uncommitted changes, you'll be prompted for a new commit message, but the default commit message will be the original message for the edit ed revision, and the date of the original commit will be preserved.

The message operation will give you a chance to revise a commit message without changing the contents. It's a shortcut for doing edit immediately followed by hg histedit --continue`.

If histedit encounters a conflict when moving a revision (while handling pick or fold), it'll stop in a similar manner to edit with the difference that it won't prompt you for a commit message when done. If you decide at this point that you don't like how much work it will be to rearrange history, or that you made a mistake, you can use hg histedit --abort to abandon the new changes you have made and return to the state before you attempted to edit your history.

If we clone the histedit-ed example repository above and add four more changes, such that we have the following history:

@  6[tip]   038383181893   2009-04-27 18:04 -0500   stefan
|    Add theta
|
o  5   140988835471   2009-04-27 18:04 -0500   stefan
|    Add eta
|
o  4   122930637314   2009-04-27 18:04 -0500   stefan
|    Add zeta
|
o  3   836302820282   2009-04-27 18:04 -0500   stefan
|    Add epsilon
|
o  2   989b4d060121   2009-04-27 18:04 -0500   durin42
|    Add beta and delta.
|
o  1   081603921c3f   2009-04-27 18:04 -0500   durin42
|    Add gamma
|
o  0   d8d2fcd0e319   2009-04-27 18:04 -0500   durin42
     Add alpha

If you run hg histedit --outgoing on the clone then it is the same as running hg histedit 836302820282. If you need plan to push to a repository that Mercurial does not detect to be related to the source repo, you can add a --force option.

Config

Histedit rule lines are truncated to 80 characters by default. You can customize this behavior by setting a different length in your configuration file:

[histedit]
linelen = 120      # truncate rule lines at 120 characters

hg histedit attempts to automatically choose an appropriate base revision to use. To change which base revision is used, define a revset in your configuration file:

[histedit]
defaultrev = only(.) & draft()

By default each edited revision needs to be present in histedit commands. To remove revision you need to use drop operation. You can configure the drop to be implicit for missing commits by adding:

[histedit]
dropmissing = True

By default, histedit will close the transaction after each action. For performance purposes, you can configure histedit to use a single transaction across the entire histedit. WARNING: This setting introduces a significant risk of losing the work you've done in a histedit if the histedit aborts unexpectedly:

[histedit]
singletransaction = True

Commands

histedit

interactively edit changeset history:

hg histedit [OPTIONS] ([ANCESTOR] | --outgoing [URL])

This command lets you edit a linear series of changesets (up to and including the working directory, which should be clean). You can:

  • pick to [re]order a changeset
  • drop to omit changeset
  • mess to reword the changeset commit message
  • fold to combine it with the preceding changeset (using the later date)
  • roll like fold, but discarding this commit's description and date
  • edit to edit this changeset (preserving date)

There are a number of ways to select the root changeset:

  • Specify ANCESTOR directly
  • Use --outgoing -- it will be the first linear changeset not included in destination. (See hg help config.paths.default-push)
  • Otherwise, the value from the "histedit.defaultrev" config option is used as a revset to select the base revision when ANCESTOR is not specified. The first revision returned by the revset is used. By default, this selects the editable history that is unique to the ancestry of the working directory.

If you use --outgoing, this command will abort if there are ambiguous outgoing revisions. For example, if there are multiple branches containing outgoing revisions.

Use "min(outgoing() and ::.)" or similar revset specification instead of --outgoing to specify edit target revision exactly in such ambiguous situation. See hg help revsets for detail about selecting revisions.

Examples:

  • A number of changes have been made. Revision 3 is no longer needed.

    Start history editing from revision 3:

    hg histedit -r 3

    An editor opens, containing the list of revisions, with specific actions specified:

    pick 5339bf82f0ca 3 Zworgle the foobar
    pick 8ef592ce7cc4 4 Bedazzle the zerlog
    pick 0a9639fcda9d 5 Morgify the cromulancy

    Additional information about the possible actions to take appears below the list of revisions.

    To remove revision 3 from the history, its action (at the beginning of the relevant line) is changed to 'drop':

    drop 5339bf82f0ca 3 Zworgle the foobar
    pick 8ef592ce7cc4 4 Bedazzle the zerlog
    pick 0a9639fcda9d 5 Morgify the cromulancy
  • A number of changes have been made. Revision 2 and 4 need to be swapped.

    Start history editing from revision 2:

    hg histedit -r 2

    An editor opens, containing the list of revisions, with specific actions specified:

    pick 252a1af424ad 2 Blorb a morgwazzle
    pick 5339bf82f0ca 3 Zworgle the foobar
    pick 8ef592ce7cc4 4 Bedazzle the zerlog

    To swap revision 2 and 4, its lines are swapped in the editor:

    pick 8ef592ce7cc4 4 Bedazzle the zerlog
    pick 5339bf82f0ca 3 Zworgle the foobar
    pick 252a1af424ad 2 Blorb a morgwazzle

Returns 0 on success, 1 if user intervention is required (not only for intentional "edit" command, but also for resolving unexpected conflicts).

Options:

--commands <FILE>

read history edits from the specified file

-c, --continue

continue an edit already in progress

--edit-plan

edit remaining actions list

-k, --keep

don't strip old nodes after edit is complete

--abort

abort an edit in progress

-o, --outgoing

changesets not found in destination

-f, --force

force outgoing even for unrelated repositories

-r,--rev <REV[+]>

first revision to be edited

[+] marked option can be specified multiple times

journal

track previous positions of bookmarks (EXPERIMENTAL)

This extension adds a new command: hg journal, which shows you where bookmarks were previously located.

Commands

journal

show the previous position of bookmarks and the working copy:

hg journal [OPTION]... [BOOKMARKNAME]

The journal is used to see the previous commits that bookmarks and the working copy pointed to. By default the previous locations for the working copy.  Passing a bookmark name will show all the previous positions of that bookmark. Use the --all switch to show previous locations for all bookmarks and the working copy; each line will then include the bookmark name, or '.' for the working copy, as well.

If name starts with re:, the remainder of the name is treated as a regular expression. To match a name that actually starts with re:, use the prefix literal:.

By default hg journal only shows the commit hash and the command that was running at that time. -v/--verbose will show the prior hash, the user, and the time at which it happened.

Use -c/--commits to output log information on each commit hash; at this point you can use the usual --patch, --git, --stat and --template switches to alter the log output for these.

hg journal -T json can be used to produce machine readable output.

Options:

--all

show history for all names

-c, --commits

show commit metadata

-p, --patch

show patch

-g, --git

use git extended diff format

-l,--limit <NUM>

limit number of changes displayed

--stat

output diffstat-style summary of changes

--style <STYLE>

display using template map file (DEPRECATED)

-T,--template <TEMPLATE>

display with template

keyword

expand keywords in tracked files

This extension expands RCS/CVS-like or self-customized $Keywords$ in tracked text files selected by your configuration.

Keywords are only expanded in local repositories and not stored in the change history. The mechanism can be regarded as a convenience for the current user or for archive distribution.

Keywords expand to the changeset data pertaining to the latest change relative to the working directory parent of each file.

Configuration is done in the [keyword], [keywordset] and [keywordmaps] sections of hgrc files.

Example:

[keyword]
# expand keywords in every python file except those matching "x*"
**.py =
x*    = ignore

[keywordset]
# prefer svn- over cvs-like default keywordmaps
svn = True
Note

The more specific you are in your filename patterns the less you lose speed in huge repositories.

For [keywordmaps] template mapping and expansion demonstration and control run hg kwdemo. See hg help templates for a list of available templates and filters.

Three additional date template filters are provided:

utcdate

"2006/09/18 15:13:13"

svnutcdate

"2006-09-18 15:13:13Z"

svnisodate

"2006-09-18 08:13:13 -700 (Mon, 18 Sep 2006)"

The default template mappings (view with hg kwdemo -d) can be replaced with customized keywords and templates. Again, run hg kwdemo to control the results of your configuration changes.

Before changing/disabling active keywords, you must run hg kwshrink to avoid storing expanded keywords in the change history.

To force expansion after enabling it, or a configuration change, run hg kwexpand.

Expansions spanning more than one line and incremental expansions, like CVS' $Log$, are not supported. A keyword template map "Log = {desc}" expands to the first line of the changeset description.

Commands

kwdemo

print [keywordmaps] configuration and an expansion example:

hg kwdemo [-d] [-f RCFILE] [TEMPLATEMAP]...

Show current, custom, or default keyword template maps and their expansions.

Extend the current configuration by specifying maps as arguments and using -f/--rcfile to source an external hgrc file.

Use -d/--default to disable current configuration.

See hg help templates for information on templates and filters.

Options:

-d, --default

show default keyword template maps

-f,--rcfile <FILE>

read maps from rcfile

kwexpand

expand keywords in the working directory:

hg kwexpand [OPTION]... [FILE]...

Run after (re)enabling keyword expansion.

kwexpand refuses to run if given files contain local changes.

Options:

-I,--include <PATTERN[+]>

include names matching the given patterns

-X,--exclude <PATTERN[+]>

exclude names matching the given patterns

[+] marked option can be specified multiple times

kwfiles

show files configured for keyword expansion:

hg kwfiles [OPTION]... [FILE]...

List which files in the working directory are matched by the [keyword] configuration patterns.

Useful to prevent inadvertent keyword expansion and to speed up execution by including only files that are actual candidates for expansion.

See hg help keyword on how to construct patterns both for inclusion and exclusion of files.

With -A/--all and -v/--verbose the codes used to show the status of files are:

K = keyword expansion candidate
k = keyword expansion candidate (not tracked)
I = ignored
i = ignored (not tracked)

Options:

-A, --all

show keyword status flags of all files

-i, --ignore

show files excluded from expansion

-u, --unknown

only show unknown (not tracked) files

-I,--include <PATTERN[+]>

include names matching the given patterns

-X,--exclude <PATTERN[+]>

exclude names matching the given patterns

[+] marked option can be specified multiple times

kwshrink

revert expanded keywords in the working directory:

hg kwshrink [OPTION]... [FILE]...

Must be run before changing/disabling active keywords.

kwshrink refuses to run if given files contain local changes.

Options:

-I,--include <PATTERN[+]>

include names matching the given patterns

-X,--exclude <PATTERN[+]>

exclude names matching the given patterns

[+] marked option can be specified multiple times

largefiles

track large binary files

Large binary files tend to be not very compressible, not very diffable, and not at all mergeable. Such files are not handled efficiently by Mercurial's storage format (revlog), which is based on compressed binary deltas; storing large binary files as regular Mercurial files wastes bandwidth and disk space and increases Mercurial's memory usage. The largefiles extension addresses these problems by adding a centralized client-server layer on top of Mercurial: largefiles live in a central store out on the network somewhere, and you only fetch the revisions that you need when you need them.

largefiles works by maintaining a "standin file" in .hglf/ for each largefile. The standins are small (41 bytes: an SHA-1 hash plus newline) and are tracked by Mercurial. Largefile revisions are identified by the SHA-1 hash of their contents, which is written to the standin. largefiles uses that revision ID to get/put largefile revisions from/to the central store. This saves both disk space and bandwidth, since you don't need to retrieve all historical revisions of large files when you clone or pull.

To start a new repository or add new large binary files, just add --large to your hg add command. For example:

$ dd if=/dev/urandom of=randomdata count=2000
$ hg add --large randomdata
$ hg commit -m "add randomdata as a largefile"

When you push a changeset that adds/modifies largefiles to a remote repository, its largefile revisions will be uploaded along with it. Note that the remote Mercurial must also have the largefiles extension enabled for this to work.

When you pull a changeset that affects largefiles from a remote repository, the largefiles for the changeset will by default not be pulled down. However, when you update to such a revision, any largefiles needed by that revision are downloaded and cached (if they have never been downloaded before). One way to pull largefiles when pulling is thus to use --update, which will update your working copy to the latest pulled revision (and thereby downloading any new largefiles).

If you want to pull largefiles you don't need for update yet, then you can use pull with the --lfrev option or the hg lfpull command.

If you know you are pulling from a non-default location and want to download all the largefiles that correspond to the new changesets at the same time, then you can pull with --lfrev "pulled()".

If you just want to ensure that you will have the largefiles needed to merge or rebase with new heads that you are pulling, then you can pull with --lfrev "head(pulled())" flag to pre-emptively download any largefiles that are new in the heads you are pulling.

Keep in mind that network access may now be required to update to changesets that you have not previously updated to. The nature of the largefiles extension means that updating is no longer guaranteed to be a local-only operation.

If you already have large files tracked by Mercurial without the largefiles extension, you will need to convert your repository in order to benefit from largefiles. This is done with the hg lfconvert command:

$ hg lfconvert --size 10 oldrepo newrepo

In repositories that already have largefiles in them, any new file over 10MB will automatically be added as a largefile. To change this threshold, set largefiles.minsize in your Mercurial config file to the minimum size in megabytes to track as a largefile, or use the --lfsize option to the add command (also in megabytes):

[largefiles]
minsize = 2

$ hg add --lfsize 2

The largefiles.patterns config option allows you to specify a list of filename patterns (see hg help patterns) that should always be tracked as largefiles:

[largefiles]
patterns =
  *.jpg
  re:.*\.(png|bmp)$
  library.zip
  content/audio/*

Files that match one of these patterns will be added as largefiles regardless of their size.

The largefiles.minsize and largefiles.patterns config options will be ignored for any repositories not already containing a largefile. To add the first largefile to a repository, you must explicitly do so with the --large flag passed to the hg add command.

Commands

lfconvert

convert a normal repository to a largefiles repository:

hg lfconvert SOURCE DEST [FILE ...]

Convert repository SOURCE to a new repository DEST, identical to SOURCE except that certain files will be converted as largefiles: specifically, any file that matches any PATTERN or whose size is above the minimum size threshold is converted as a largefile. The size used to determine whether or not to track a file as a largefile is the size of the first version of the file. The minimum size can be specified either with --size or in configuration as largefiles.size.

After running this command you will need to make sure that largefiles is enabled anywhere you intend to push the new repository.

Use --to-normal to convert largefiles back to normal files; after this, the DEST repository can be used without largefiles at all.

Options:

-s,--size <SIZE>

minimum size (MB) for files to be converted as largefiles

--to-normal

convert from a largefiles repo to a normal repo

lfpull

pull largefiles for the specified revisions from the specified source:

hg lfpull -r REV... [-e CMD] [--remotecmd CMD] [SOURCE]

Pull largefiles that are referenced from local changesets but missing locally, pulling from a remote repository to the local cache.

If SOURCE is omitted, the 'default' path will be used. See hg help urls for more information.

Some examples:

  • pull largefiles for all branch heads:

    hg lfpull -r "head() and not closed()"
  • pull largefiles on the default branch:

    hg lfpull -r "branch(default)"

Options:

-r,--rev <VALUE[+]>

pull largefiles for these revisions

-e,--ssh <CMD>

specify ssh command to use

--remotecmd <CMD>

specify hg command to run on the remote side

--insecure

do not verify server certificate (ignoring web.cacerts config)

[+] marked option can be specified multiple times

logtoprocess

send ui.log() data to a subprocess (EXPERIMENTAL)

This extension lets you specify a shell command per ui.log() event, sending all remaining arguments to as environment variables to that command.

Each positional argument to the method results in a MSG[N] key in the environment, starting at 1 (so MSG1, MSG2, etc.). Each keyword argument is set as a OPT_UPPERCASE_KEY variable (so the key is uppercased, and prefixed with OPT_). The original event name is passed in the EVENT environment variable, and the process ID of mercurial is given in HGPID.

So given a call ui.log('foo', 'bar', 'baz', spam='eggs'), a script configured for the `foo event can expect an environment with MSG1=bar, MSG2=baz, and OPT_SPAM=eggs.

Scripts are configured in the [logtoprocess] section, each key an event name. For example:

[logtoprocess]
commandexception = echo "$MSG2$MSG3" > /var/log/mercurial_exceptions.log

would log the warning message and traceback of any failed command dispatch.

Scripts are run asynchronously as detached daemon processes; mercurial will not ensure that they exit cleanly.

mq

manage a stack of patches

This extension lets you work with a stack of patches in a Mercurial repository. It manages two stacks of patches - all known patches, and applied patches (subset of known patches).

Known patches are represented as patch files in the .hg/patches directory. Applied patches are both patch files and changesets.

Common tasks (use hg help COMMAND for more details):

create new patch                          qnew
import existing patch                     qimport

print patch series                        qseries
print applied patches                     qapplied

add known patch to applied stack          qpush
remove patch from applied stack           qpop
refresh contents of top applied patch     qrefresh

By default, mq will automatically use git patches when required to avoid losing file mode changes, copy records, binary files or empty files creations or deletions. This behavior can be configured with:

[mq]
git = auto/keep/yes/no

If set to 'keep', mq will obey the [diff] section configuration while preserving existing git patches upon qrefresh. If set to 'yes' or 'no', mq will override the [diff] section and always generate git or regular patches, possibly losing data in the second case.

It may be desirable for mq changesets to be kept in the secret phase (see hg help phases), which can be enabled with the following setting:

[mq]
secret = True

You will by default be managing a patch queue named "patches". You can create other, independent patch queues with the hg qqueue command.

If the working directory contains uncommitted files, qpush, qpop and qgoto abort immediately. If -f/--force is used, the changes are discarded. Setting:

[mq]
keepchanges = True

make them behave as if --keep-changes were passed, and non-conflicting local changes will be tolerated and preserved. If incompatible options such as -f/--force or --exact are passed, this setting is ignored.

This extension used to provide a strip command. This command now lives in the strip extension.

Commands

qapplied

print the patches already applied:

hg qapplied [-1] [-s] [PATCH]

Returns 0 on success.

Options:

-1, --last

show only the preceding applied patch

-s, --summary

print first line of patch header

qclone

clone main and patch repository at same time:

hg qclone [OPTION]... SOURCE [DEST]

If source is local, destination will have no patches applied. If source is remote, this command can not check if patches are applied in source, so cannot guarantee that patches are not applied in destination. If you clone remote repository, be sure before that it has no patches applied.

Source patch repository is looked for in <src>/.hg/patches by default. Use -p <url> to change.

The patch directory must be a nested Mercurial repository, as would be created by hg init --mq.

Return 0 on success.

Options:

--pull

use pull protocol to copy metadata

-U, --noupdate

do not update the new working directories

--uncompressed

use uncompressed transfer (fast over LAN)

-p,--patches <REPO>

location of source patch repository

-e,--ssh <CMD>

specify ssh command to use

--remotecmd <CMD>

specify hg command to run on the remote side

--insecure

do not verify server certificate (ignoring web.cacerts config)

qcommit

commit changes in the queue repository (DEPRECATED):

hg qcommit [OPTION]... [FILE]...

This command is deprecated; use hg commit --mq instead.

Options:

-A, --addremove

mark new/missing files as added/removed before committing

--close-branch

mark a branch head as closed

--amend

amend the parent of the working directory

-s, --secret

use the secret phase for committing

-e, --edit

invoke editor on commit messages

-i, --interactive

use interactive mode

-I,--include <PATTERN[+]>

include names matching the given patterns

-X,--exclude <PATTERN[+]>

exclude names matching the given patterns

-m,--message <TEXT>

use text as commit message

-l,--logfile <FILE>

read commit message from file

-d,--date <DATE>

record the specified date as commit date

-u,--user <USER>

record the specified user as committer

-S, --subrepos

recurse into subrepositories

[+] marked option can be specified multiple times

aliases: qci

qdelete

remove patches from queue:

hg qdelete [-k] [PATCH]...

The patches must not be applied, and at least one patch is required. Exact patch identifiers must be given. With -k/--keep, the patch files are preserved in the patch directory.

To stop managing a patch and move it into permanent history, use the hg qfinish command.

Options:

-k, --keep

keep patch file

-r,--rev <REV[+]>

stop managing a revision (DEPRECATED)

[+] marked option can be specified multiple times

aliases: qremove qrm

qdiff

diff of the current patch and subsequent modifications:

hg qdiff [OPTION]... [FILE]...

Shows a diff which includes the current patch as well as any changes which have been made in the working directory since the last refresh (thus showing what the current patch would become after a qrefresh).

Use hg diff if you only want to see the changes made since the last qrefresh, or hg export qtip if you want to see changes made by the current patch without including changes made since the qrefresh.

Returns 0 on success.

Options:

-a, --text

treat all files as text

-g, --git

use git extended diff format

--binary

generate binary diffs in git mode (default)

--nodates

omit dates from diff headers

--noprefix

omit a/ and b/ prefixes from filenames

-p, --show-function

show which function each change is in

--reverse

produce a diff that undoes the changes

-w, --ignore-all-space

ignore white space when comparing lines

-b, --ignore-space-change

ignore changes in the amount of white space

-B, --ignore-blank-lines

ignore changes whose lines are all blank

-U,--unified <NUM>

number of lines of context to show

--stat

output diffstat-style summary of changes

--root <DIR>

produce diffs relative to subdirectory

-I,--include <PATTERN[+]>

include names matching the given patterns

-X,--exclude <PATTERN[+]>

exclude names matching the given patterns

[+] marked option can be specified multiple times

qfinish

move applied patches into repository history:

hg qfinish [-a] [REV]...

Finishes the specified revisions (corresponding to applied patches) by moving them out of mq control into regular repository history.

Accepts a revision range or the -a/--applied option. If --applied is specified, all applied mq revisions are removed from mq control. Otherwise, the given revisions must be at the base of the stack of applied patches.

This can be especially useful if your changes have been applied to an upstream repository, or if you are about to push your changes to upstream.

Returns 0 on success.

Options:

-a, --applied

finish all applied changesets

qfold

fold the named patches into the current patch:

hg qfold [-e] [-k] [-m TEXT] [-l FILE] PATCH...

Patches must not yet be applied. Each patch will be successively applied to the current patch in the order given. If all the patches apply successfully, the current patch will be refreshed with the new cumulative patch, and the folded patches will be deleted. With -k/--keep, the folded patch files will not be removed afterwards.

The header for each folded patch will be concatenated with the current patch header, separated by a line of * * *.

Returns 0 on success.

Options:

-e, --edit

invoke editor on commit messages

-k, --keep

keep folded patch files

-m,--message <TEXT>

use text as commit message

-l,--logfile <FILE>

read commit message from file

qgoto

push or pop patches until named patch is at top of stack:

hg qgoto [OPTION]... PATCH

Returns 0 on success.

Options:

--keep-changes

tolerate non-conflicting local changes

-f, --force

overwrite any local changes

--no-backup

do not save backup copies of files

qguard

set or print guards for a patch:

hg qguard [-l] [-n] [PATCH] [-- [+GUARD]... [-GUARD]...]

Guards control whether a patch can be pushed. A patch with no guards is always pushed. A patch with a positive guard ("+foo") is pushed only if the hg qselect command has activated it. A patch with a negative guard ("-foo") is never pushed if the hg qselect command has activated it.

With no arguments, print the currently active guards. With arguments, set guards for the named patch.

Note

Specifying negative guards now requires '--'.

To set guards on another patch:

hg qguard other.patch -- +2.6.17 -stable

Returns 0 on success.

Options:

-l, --list

list all patches and guards

-n, --none

drop all guards

qheader

print the header of the topmost or specified patch:

hg qheader [PATCH]

Returns 0 on success.

qimport

import a patch or existing changeset:

hg qimport [-e] [-n NAME] [-f] [-g] [-P] [-r REV]... [FILE]...

The patch is inserted into the series after the last applied patch. If no patches have been applied, qimport prepends the patch to the series.

The patch will have the same name as its source file unless you give it a new one with -n/--name.

You can register an existing patch inside the patch directory with the -e/--existing flag.

With -f/--force, an existing patch of the same name will be overwritten.

An existing changeset may be placed under mq control with -r/--rev (e.g. qimport --rev . -n patch will place the current revision under mq control). With -g/--git, patches imported with --rev will use the git diff format. See the diffs help topic for information on why this is important for preserving rename/copy information and permission changes. Use hg qfinish to remove changesets from mq control.

To import a patch from standard input, pass - as the patch file. When importing from standard input, a patch name must be specified using the --name flag.

To import an existing patch while renaming it:

hg qimport -e existing-patch -n new-name

Returns 0 if import succeeded.

Options:

-e, --existing

import file in patch directory

-n,--name <NAME>

name of patch file

-f, --force

overwrite existing files

-r,--rev <REV[+]>

place existing revisions under mq control

-g, --git

use git extended diff format

-P, --push

qpush after importing

[+] marked option can be specified multiple times

qinit

init a new queue repository (DEPRECATED):

hg qinit [-c]

The queue repository is unversioned by default. If -c/--create-repo is specified, qinit will create a separate nested repository for patches (qinit -c may also be run later to convert an unversioned patch repository into a versioned one). You can use qcommit to commit changes to this queue repository.

This command is deprecated. Without -c, it's implied by other relevant commands. With -c, use hg init --mq instead.

Options:

-c, --create-repo

create queue repository

qnew

create a new patch:

hg qnew [-e] [-m TEXT] [-l FILE] PATCH [FILE]...

qnew creates a new patch on top of the currently-applied patch (if any). The patch will be initialized with any outstanding changes in the working directory. You may also use -I/--include, -X/--exclude, and/or a list of files after the patch name to add only changes to matching files to the new patch, leaving the rest as uncommitted modifications.

-u/--user and -d/--date can be used to set the (given) user and date, respectively. -U/--currentuser and -D/--currentdate set user to current user and date to current date.

-e/--edit, -m/--message or -l/--logfile set the patch header as well as the commit message. If none is specified, the header is empty and the commit message is '[mq]: PATCH'.

Use the -g/--git option to keep the patch in the git extended diff format. Read the diffs help topic for more information on why this is important for preserving permission changes and copy/rename information.

Returns 0 on successful creation of a new patch.

Options:

-e, --edit

invoke editor on commit messages

-f, --force

import uncommitted changes (DEPRECATED)

-g, --git

use git extended diff format

-U, --currentuser

add "From: <current user>" to patch

-u,--user <USER>

add "From: <USER>" to patch

-D, --currentdate

add "Date: <current date>" to patch

-d,--date <DATE>

add "Date: <DATE>" to patch

-I,--include <PATTERN[+]>

include names matching the given patterns

-X,--exclude <PATTERN[+]>

exclude names matching the given patterns

-m,--message <TEXT>

use text as commit message

-l,--logfile <FILE>

read commit message from file

[+] marked option can be specified multiple times

qnext

print the name of the next pushable patch:

hg qnext [-s]

Returns 0 on success.

Options:

-s, --summary

print first line of patch header

qpop

pop the current patch off the stack:

hg qpop [-a] [-f] [PATCH | INDEX]

Without argument, pops off the top of the patch stack. If given a patch name, keeps popping off patches until the named patch is at the top of the stack.

By default, abort if the working directory contains uncommitted changes. With --keep-changes, abort only if the uncommitted files overlap with patched files. With -f/--force, backup and discard changes made to such files.

Return 0 on success.

Options:

-a, --all

pop all patches

-n,--name <NAME>

queue name to pop (DEPRECATED)

--keep-changes

tolerate non-conflicting local changes

-f, --force

forget any local changes to patched files

--no-backup

do not save backup copies of files

qprev

print the name of the preceding applied patch:

hg qprev [-s]

Returns 0 on success.

Options:

-s, --summary

print first line of patch header

qpush

push the next patch onto the stack:

hg qpush [-f] [-l] [-a] [--move] [PATCH | INDEX]

By default, abort if the working directory contains uncommitted changes. With --keep-changes, abort only if the uncommitted files overlap with patched files. With -f/--force, backup and patch over uncommitted changes.

Return 0 on success.

Options:

--keep-changes

tolerate non-conflicting local changes

-f, --force

apply on top of local changes

-e, --exact

apply the target patch to its recorded parent

-l, --list

list patch name in commit text

-a, --all

apply all patches

-m, --merge

merge from another queue (DEPRECATED)

-n,--name <NAME>

merge queue name (DEPRECATED)

--move

reorder patch series and apply only the patch

--no-backup

do not save backup copies of files

qqueue

manage multiple patch queues:

hg qqueue [OPTION] [QUEUE]

Supports switching between different patch queues, as well as creating new patch queues and deleting existing ones.

Omitting a queue name or specifying -l/--list will show you the registered queues - by default the "normal" patches queue is registered. The currently active queue will be marked with "(active)". Specifying --active will print only the name of the active queue.

To create a new queue, use -c/--create. The queue is automatically made active, except in the case where there are applied patches from the currently active queue in the repository. Then the queue will only be created and switching will fail.

To delete an existing queue, use --delete. You cannot delete the currently active queue.

Returns 0 on success.

Options:

-l, --list

list all available queues

--active

print name of active queue

-c, --create

create new queue

--rename

rename active queue

--delete

delete reference to queue

--purge

delete queue, and remove patch dir

qrefresh

update the current patch:

hg qrefresh [-I] [-X] [-e] [-m TEXT] [-l FILE] [-s] [FILE]...

If any file patterns are provided, the refreshed patch will contain only the modifications that match those patterns; the remaining modifications will remain in the working directory.

If -s/--short is specified, files currently included in the patch will be refreshed just like matched files and remain in the patch.

If -e/--edit is specified, Mercurial will start your configured editor for you to enter a message. In case qrefresh fails, you will find a backup of your message in .hg/last-message.txt.

hg add/remove/copy/rename work as usual, though you might want to use git-style patches (-g/--git or [diff] git=1) to track copies and renames. See the diffs help topic for more information on the git diff format.

Returns 0 on success.

Options:

-e, --edit

invoke editor on commit messages

-g, --git

use git extended diff format

-s, --short

refresh only files already in the patch and specified files

-U, --currentuser

add/update author field in patch with current user

-u,--user <USER>

add/update author field in patch with given user

-D, --currentdate

add/update date field in patch with current date

-d,--date <DATE>

add/update date field in patch with given date

-I,--include <PATTERN[+]>

include names matching the given patterns

-X,--exclude <PATTERN[+]>

exclude names matching the given patterns

-m,--message <TEXT>

use text as commit message

-l,--logfile <FILE>

read commit message from file

[+] marked option can be specified multiple times

qrename

rename a patch:

hg qrename PATCH1 [PATCH2]

With one argument, renames the current patch to PATCH1. With two arguments, renames PATCH1 to PATCH2.

Returns 0 on success.

aliases: qmv

qrestore

restore the queue state saved by a revision (DEPRECATED):

hg qrestore [-d] [-u] REV

This command is deprecated, use hg rebase instead.

Options:

-d, --delete

delete save entry

-u, --update

update queue working directory

qsave

save current queue state (DEPRECATED):

hg qsave [-m TEXT] [-l FILE] [-c] [-n NAME] [-e] [-f]

This command is deprecated, use hg rebase instead.

Options:

-c, --copy

copy patch directory

-n,--name <NAME>

copy directory name

-e, --empty

clear queue status file

-f, --force

force copy

-m,--message <TEXT>

use text as commit message

-l,--logfile <FILE>

read commit message from file

qselect

set or print guarded patches to push:

hg qselect [OPTION]... [GUARD]...

Use the hg qguard command to set or print guards on patch, then use qselect to tell mq which guards to use. A patch will be pushed if it has no guards or any positive guards match the currently selected guard, but will not be pushed if any negative guards match the current guard. For example:

qguard foo.patch -- -stable    (negative guard)
qguard bar.patch    +stable    (positive guard)
qselect stable

This activates the "stable" guard. mq will skip foo.patch (because it has a negative match) but push bar.patch (because it has a positive match).

With no arguments, prints the currently active guards. With one argument, sets the active guard.

Use -n/--none to deactivate guards (no other arguments needed). When no guards are active, patches with positive guards are skipped and patches with negative guards are pushed.

qselect can change the guards on applied patches. It does not pop guarded patches by default. Use --pop to pop back to the last applied patch that is not guarded. Use --reapply (which implies --pop) to push back to the current patch afterwards, but skip guarded patches.

Use -s/--series to print a list of all guards in the series file (no other arguments needed). Use -v for more information.

Returns 0 on success.

Options:

-n, --none

disable all guards

-s, --series

list all guards in series file

--pop

pop to before first guarded applied patch

--reapply

pop, then reapply patches

qseries

print the entire series file:

hg qseries [-ms]

Returns 0 on success.

Options:

-m, --missing

print patches not in series

-s, --summary

print first line of patch header

qtop

print the name of the current patch:

hg qtop [-s]

Returns 0 on success.

Options:

-s, --summary

print first line of patch header

qunapplied

print the patches not yet applied:

hg qunapplied [-1] [-s] [PATCH]

Returns 0 on success.

Options:

-1, --first

show only the first patch

-s, --summary

print first line of patch header

notify

hooks for sending email push notifications

This extension implements hooks to send email notifications when changesets are sent from or received by the local repository.

First, enable the extension as explained in hg help extensions, and register the hook you want to run. incoming and changegroup hooks are run when changesets are received, while outgoing hooks are for changesets sent to another repository:

[hooks]
# one email for each incoming changeset
incoming.notify = python:hgext.notify.hook
# one email for all incoming changesets
changegroup.notify = python:hgext.notify.hook

# one email for all outgoing changesets
outgoing.notify = python:hgext.notify.hook

This registers the hooks. To enable notification, subscribers must be assigned to repositories. The [usersubs] section maps multiple repositories to a given recipient. The [reposubs] section maps multiple recipients to a single repository:

[usersubs]
# key is subscriber email, value is a comma-separated list of repo patterns
user@host = pattern

[reposubs]
# key is repo pattern, value is a comma-separated list of subscriber emails
pattern = user@host

A pattern is a glob matching the absolute path to a repository, optionally combined with a revset expression. A revset expression, if present, is separated from the glob by a hash. Example:

[reposubs]
*/widgets#branch(release) = qa-team@example.com

This sends to qa-team@example.com whenever a changeset on the release branch triggers a notification in any repository ending in widgets.

In order to place them under direct user management, [usersubs] and [reposubs] sections may be placed in a separate hgrc file and incorporated by reference:

[notify]
config = /path/to/subscriptionsfile

Notifications will not be sent until the notify.test value is set to False; see below.

Notifications content can be tweaked with the following configuration entries:

notify.test

If True, print messages to stdout instead of sending them. Default: True.

notify.sources

Space-separated list of change sources. Notifications are activated only when a changeset's source is in this list. Sources may be:

serve

changesets received via http or ssh

pull

changesets received via hg pull

unbundle

changesets received via hg unbundle

push

changesets sent or received via hg push

bundle

changesets sent via hg unbundle

Default: serve.

notify.strip

Number of leading slashes to strip from url paths. By default, notifications reference repositories with their absolute path. notify.strip lets you turn them into relative paths. For example, notify.strip=3 will change /long/path/repository into repository. Default: 0.

notify.domain

Default email domain for sender or recipients with no explicit domain.

notify.style

Style file to use when formatting emails.

notify.template

Template to use when formatting emails.

notify.incoming

Template to use when run as an incoming hook, overriding notify.template.

notify.outgoing

Template to use when run as an outgoing hook, overriding notify.template.

notify.changegroup

Template to use when running as a changegroup hook, overriding notify.template.

notify.maxdiff

Maximum number of diff lines to include in notification email. Set to 0 to disable the diff, or -1 to include all of it. Default: 300.

notify.maxsubject

Maximum number of characters in email's subject line. Default: 67.

notify.diffstat

Set to True to include a diffstat before diff content. Default: True.

notify.merge

If True, send notifications for merge changesets. Default: True.

notify.mbox

If set, append mails to this mbox file instead of sending. Default: None.

notify.fromauthor

If set, use the committer of the first changeset in a changegroup for the "From" field of the notification mail. If not set, take the user from the pushing repo.  Default: False.

If set, the following entries will also be used to customize the notifications:

email.from

Email From address to use if none can be found in the generated email content.

web.baseurl

Root repository URL to combine with repository paths when making references. See also notify.strip.

pager

browse command output with an external pager (DEPRECATED)

Forcibly enable paging for individual commands that don't typically request pagination with the attend-<command> option. This setting takes precedence over ignore options and defaults:

[pager]
attend-cat = false

patchbomb

command to send changesets as (a series of) patch emails

The series is started off with a "[PATCH 0 of N]" introduction, which describes the series as a whole.

Each patch email has a Subject line of "[PATCH M of N] ...", using the first line of the changeset description as the subject text. The message contains two or three body parts:

  • The changeset description.
  • [Optional] The result of running diffstat on the patch.
  • The patch itself, as generated by hg export.

Each message refers to the first in the series using the In-Reply-To and References headers, so they will show up as a sequence in threaded mail and news readers, and in mail archives.

To configure other defaults, add a section like this to your configuration file:

[email]
from = My Name <my@email>
to = recipient1, recipient2, ...
cc = cc1, cc2, ...
bcc = bcc1, bcc2, ...
reply-to = address1, address2, ...

Use [patchbomb] as configuration section name if you need to override global [email] address settings.

Then you can use the hg email command to mail a series of changesets as a patchbomb.

You can also either configure the method option in the email section to be a sendmail compatible mailer or fill out the [smtp] section so that the patchbomb extension can automatically send patchbombs directly from the commandline. See the [email] and [smtp] sections in hgrc(5) for details.

By default, hg email will prompt for a To or CC header if you do not supply one via configuration or the command line.  You can override this to never prompt by configuring an empty value:

[email]
cc =

You can control the default inclusion of an introduction message with the patchbomb.intro configuration option. The configuration is always overwritten by command line flags like --intro and --desc:

[patchbomb]
intro=auto   # include introduction message if more than 1 patch (default)
intro=never  # never include an introduction message
intro=always # always include an introduction message

You can specify a template for flags to be added in subject prefixes. Flags specified by --flag option are exported as {flags} keyword:

[patchbomb]
flagtemplate = "{separate(' ',
                          ifeq(branch, 'default', '', branch|upper),
                          flags)}"

You can set patchbomb to always ask for confirmation by setting patchbomb.confirm to true.

Commands

email

send changesets by email:

hg email [OPTION]... [DEST]...

By default, diffs are sent in the format generated by hg export, one per message. The series starts with a "[PATCH 0 of N]" introduction, which describes the series as a whole.

Each patch email has a Subject line of "[PATCH M of N] ...", using the first line of the changeset description as the subject text. The message contains two or three parts. First, the changeset description.

With the -d/--diffstat option, if the diffstat program is installed, the result of running diffstat on the patch is inserted.

Finally, the patch itself, as generated by hg export.

With the -d/--diffstat or --confirm options, you will be presented with a final summary of all messages and asked for confirmation before the messages are sent.

By default the patch is included as text in the email body for easy reviewing. Using the -a/--attach option will instead create an attachment for the patch. With -i/--inline an inline attachment will be created. You can include a patch both as text in the email body and as a regular or an inline attachment by combining the -a/--attach or -i/--inline with the --body option.

With -o/--outgoing, emails will be generated for patches not found in the destination repository (or only those which are ancestors of the specified revisions if any are provided)

With -b/--bundle, changesets are selected as for --outgoing, but a single email containing a binary Mercurial bundle as an attachment will be sent. Use the patchbomb.bundletype config option to control the bundle type as with hg bundle --type.

With -m/--mbox, instead of previewing each patchbomb message in a pager or sending the messages directly, it will create a UNIX mailbox file with the patch emails. This mailbox file can be previewed with any mail user agent which supports UNIX mbox files.

With -n/--test, all steps will run, but mail will not be sent. You will be prompted for an email recipient address, a subject and an introductory message describing the patches of your patchbomb. Then when all is done, patchbomb messages are displayed.

In case email sending fails, you will find a backup of your series introductory message in .hg/last-email.txt.

The default behavior of this command can be customized through configuration. (See hg help patchbomb for details)

Examples:

hg email -r 3000          # send patch 3000 only
hg email -r 3000 -r 3001  # send patches 3000 and 3001
hg email -r 3000:3005     # send patches 3000 through 3005
hg email 3000             # send patch 3000 (deprecated)

hg email -o               # send all patches not in default
hg email -o DEST          # send all patches not in DEST
hg email -o -r 3000       # send all ancestors of 3000 not in default
hg email -o -r 3000 DEST  # send all ancestors of 3000 not in DEST

hg email -b               # send bundle of all patches not in default
hg email -b DEST          # send bundle of all patches not in DEST
hg email -b -r 3000       # bundle of all ancestors of 3000 not in default
hg email -b -r 3000 DEST  # bundle of all ancestors of 3000 not in DEST

hg email -o -m mbox &&    # generate an mbox file...
  mutt -R -f mbox         # ... and view it with mutt
hg email -o -m mbox &&    # generate an mbox file ...
  formail -s sendmail \   # ... and use formail to send from the mbox
    -bm -t < mbox         # ... using sendmail

Before using this command, you will need to enable email in your hgrc. See the [email] section in hgrc(5) for details.

Options:

-g, --git

use git extended diff format

--plain

omit hg patch header

-o, --outgoing

send changes not found in the target repository

-b, --bundle

send changes not in target as a binary bundle

--bundlename <NAME>

name of the bundle attachment file (default: bundle)

-r,--rev <REV[+]>

a revision to send

--force

run even when remote repository is unrelated (with -b/--bundle)

--base <REV[+]>

a base changeset to specify instead of a destination (with -b/--bundle)

--intro

send an introduction email for a single patch

--body

send patches as inline message text (default)

-a, --attach

send patches as attachments

-i, --inline

send patches as inline attachments

--bcc <VALUE[+]>

email addresses of blind carbon copy recipients

-c,--cc <VALUE[+]>

email addresses of copy recipients

--confirm

ask for confirmation before sending

-d, --diffstat

add diffstat output to messages

--date <VALUE>

use the given date as the sending date

--desc <VALUE>

use the given file as the series description

-f,--from <VALUE>

email address of sender

-n, --test

print messages that would be sent

-m,--mbox <VALUE>

write messages to mbox file instead of sending them

--reply-to <VALUE[+]>

email addresses replies should be sent to

-s,--subject <VALUE>

subject of first message (intro or single patch)

--in-reply-to <VALUE>

message identifier to reply to

--flag <VALUE[+]>

flags to add in subject prefixes

-t,--to <VALUE[+]>

email addresses of recipients

-e,--ssh <CMD>

specify ssh command to use

--remotecmd <CMD>

specify hg command to run on the remote side

--insecure

do not verify server certificate (ignoring web.cacerts config)

[+] marked option can be specified multiple times

purge

command to delete untracked files from the working directory

Commands

purge

removes files not tracked by Mercurial:

hg purge [OPTION]... [DIR]...

Delete files not known to Mercurial. This is useful to test local and uncommitted changes in an otherwise-clean source tree.

This means that purge will delete the following by default:

  • Unknown files: files marked with "?" by hg status
  • Empty directories: in fact Mercurial ignores directories unless they contain files under source control management

But it will leave untouched:

  • Modified and unmodified tracked files
  • Ignored files (unless --all is specified)
  • New files added to the repository (with hg add)

The --files and --dirs options can be used to direct purge to delete only files, only directories, or both. If neither option is given, both will be deleted.

If directories are given on the command line, only files in these directories are considered.

Be careful with purge, as you could irreversibly delete some files you forgot to add to the repository. If you only want to print the list of files that this program would delete, use the --print option.

Options:

-a, --abort-on-err

abort if an error occurs

--all

purge ignored files too

--dirs

purge empty directories

--files

purge files

-p, --print

print filenames instead of deleting them

-0, --print0

end filenames with NUL, for use with xargs (implies -p/--print)

-I,--include <PATTERN[+]>

include names matching the given patterns

-X,--exclude <PATTERN[+]>

exclude names matching the given patterns

[+] marked option can be specified multiple times

aliases: clean

rebase

command to move sets of revisions to a different ancestor

This extension lets you rebase changesets in an existing Mercurial repository.

For more information: https://mercurial-scm.org/wiki/RebaseExtension

Commands

rebase

move changeset (and descendants) to a different branch:

hg rebase [-s REV | -b REV] [-d REV] [OPTION]

Rebase uses repeated merging to graft changesets from one part of history (the source) onto another (the destination). This can be useful for linearizing local changes relative to a master development tree.

Published commits cannot be rebased (see hg help phases). To copy commits, see hg help graft.

If you don't specify a destination changeset (-d/--dest), rebase will use the same logic as hg merge to pick a destination.  if the current branch contains exactly one other head, the other head is merged with by default.  Otherwise, an explicit revision with which to merge with must be provided.  (destination changeset is not modified by rebasing, but new changesets are added as its descendants.)

Here are the ways to select changesets:

1.

Explicitly select them using --rev.

2.

Use --source to select a root changeset and include all of its descendants.

3.

Use --base to select a changeset; rebase will find ancestors and their descendants which are not also ancestors of the destination.

4.

If you do not specify any of --rev, source, or --base, rebase will use --base . as above.

Rebase will destroy original changesets unless you use --keep. It will also move your bookmarks (even if you do).

Some changesets may be dropped if they do not contribute changes (e.g. merges from the destination branch).

Unlike merge, rebase will do nothing if you are at the branch tip of a named branch with two heads. You will need to explicitly specify source and/or destination.

If you need to use a tool to automate merge/conflict decisions, you can specify one with --tool, see hg help merge-tools. As a caveat: the tool will not be used to mediate when a file was deleted, there is no hook presently available for this.

If a rebase is interrupted to manually resolve a conflict, it can be continued with --continue/-c or aborted with --abort/-a.

Examples:

  • move "local changes" (current commit back to branching point) to the current branch tip after a pull:

    hg rebase
  • move a single changeset to the stable branch:

    hg rebase -r 5f493448 -d stable
  • splice a commit and all its descendants onto another part of history:

    hg rebase --source c0c3 --dest 4cf9
  • rebase everything on a branch marked by a bookmark onto the default branch:

    hg rebase --base myfeature --dest default
  • collapse a sequence of changes into a single commit:

    hg rebase --collapse -r 1520:1525 -d .
  • move a named branch while preserving its name:

    hg rebase -r "branch(featureX)" -d 1.3 --keepbranches

Configuration Options:

You can make rebase require a destination if you set the following config option:

[commands]
rebase.requiredest = True

Return Values:

Returns 0 on success, 1 if nothing to rebase or there are unresolved conflicts.

Options:

-s,--source <REV>

rebase the specified changeset and descendants

-b,--base <REV>

rebase everything from branching point of specified changeset

-r,--rev <REV[+]>

rebase these revisions

-d,--dest <REV>

rebase onto the specified changeset

--collapse

collapse the rebased changesets

-m,--message <TEXT>

use text as collapse commit message

-e, --edit

invoke editor on commit messages

-l,--logfile <FILE>

read collapse commit message from file

-k, --keep

keep original changesets

--keepbranches

keep original branch names

-D, --detach

(DEPRECATED)

-i, --interactive

(DEPRECATED)

-t,--tool <VALUE>

specify merge tool

-c, --continue

continue an interrupted rebase

-a, --abort

abort an interrupted rebase

--style <STYLE>

display using template map file (DEPRECATED)

-T,--template <TEMPLATE>

display with template

[+] marked option can be specified multiple times

record

commands to interactively select changes for commit/qrefresh (DEPRECATED)

The feature provided by this extension has been moved into core Mercurial as hg commit --interactive.

Commands

qrecord

interactively record a new patch:

hg qrecord [OPTION]... PATCH [FILE]...

See hg help qnew & hg help record for more information and usage.

record

interactively select changes to commit:

hg record [OPTION]... [FILE]...

If a list of files is omitted, all changes reported by hg status will be candidates for recording.

See hg help dates for a list of formats valid for -d/--date.

If using the text interface (see hg help config), you will be prompted for whether to record changes to each modified file, and for files with multiple changes, for each change to use. For each query, the following responses are possible:

y - record this change
n - skip this change
e - edit this change manually

s - skip remaining changes to this file
f - record remaining changes to this file

d - done, skip remaining changes and files
a - record all changes to all remaining files
q - quit, recording no changes

? - display help

This command is not available when committing a merge.

Options:

-A, --addremove

mark new/missing files as added/removed before committing

--close-branch

mark a branch head as closed

--amend

amend the parent of the working directory

-s, --secret

use the secret phase for committing

-e, --edit

invoke editor on commit messages

-I,--include <PATTERN[+]>

include names matching the given patterns

-X,--exclude <PATTERN[+]>

exclude names matching the given patterns

-m,--message <TEXT>

use text as commit message

-l,--logfile <FILE>

read commit message from file

-d,--date <DATE>

record the specified date as commit date

-u,--user <USER>

record the specified user as committer

-S, --subrepos

recurse into subrepositories

-w, --ignore-all-space

ignore white space when comparing lines

-b, --ignore-space-change

ignore changes in the amount of white space

-B, --ignore-blank-lines

ignore changes whose lines are all blank

[+] marked option can be specified multiple times

Commands

schemes

extend schemes with shortcuts to repository swarms

This extension allows you to specify shortcuts for parent URLs with a lot of repositories to act like a scheme, for example:

[schemes]
py = http://code.python.org/hg/

After that you can use it like:

hg clone py://trunk/

Additionally there is support for some more complex schemas, for example used by Google Code:

[schemes]
gcode = http://{1}.googlecode.com/hg/

The syntax is taken from Mercurial templates, and you have unlimited number of variables, starting with {1} and continuing with {2}, {3} and so on. This variables will receive parts of URL supplied, split by /. Anything not specified as {part} will be just appended to an URL.

For convenience, the extension adds these schemes by default:

[schemes]
py = http://hg.python.org/
bb = https://bitbucket.org/
bb+ssh = ssh://hg@bitbucket.org/
gcode = https://{1}.googlecode.com/hg/
kiln = https://{1}.kilnhg.com/Repo/

You can override a predefined scheme by defining a new scheme with the same name.

Commands

share

share a common history between several working directories

Automatic Pooled Storage for Clones

When this extension is active, hg clone can be configured to automatically share/pool storage across multiple clones. This mode effectively converts hg clone to hg clone + hg share. The benefit of using this mode is the automatic management of store paths and intelligent pooling of related repositories.

The following share. config options influence this feature:

share.pool

Filesystem path where shared repository data will be stored. When defined, hg clone will automatically use shared repository storage instead of creating a store inside each clone.

share.poolnaming

How directory names in share.pool are constructed.

"identity" means the name is derived from the first changeset in the repository. In this mode, different remotes share storage if their root/initial changeset is identical. In this mode, the local shared repository is an aggregate of all encountered remote repositories.

"remote" means the name is derived from the source repository's path or URL. In this mode, storage is only shared if the path or URL requested in the hg clone command matches exactly to a repository that was cloned before.

The default naming mode is "identity."

Commands

share

create a new shared repository:

hg share [-U] [-B] SOURCE [DEST]

Initialize a new repository and working directory that shares its history (and optionally bookmarks) with another repository.

Note

using rollback or extensions that destroy/modify history (mq, rebase, etc.) can cause considerable confusion with shared clones. In particular, if two shared clones are both updated to the same changeset, and one of them destroys that changeset with rollback, the other clone will suddenly stop working: all operations will fail with "abort: working directory has unknown parent". The only known workaround is to use debugsetparents on the broken clone to reset it to a changeset that still exists.

Options:

-U, --noupdate

do not create a working directory

-B, --bookmarks

also share bookmarks

--relative

point to source using a relative path (EXPERIMENTAL)

unshare

convert a shared repository to a normal one:

hg unshare

Copy the store data to the repo and remove the sharedpath data.

shelve

save and restore changes to the working directory

The "hg shelve" command saves changes made to the working directory and reverts those changes, resetting the working directory to a clean state.

Later on, the "hg unshelve" command restores the changes saved by "hg shelve". Changes can be restored even after updating to a different parent, in which case Mercurial's merge machinery will resolve any conflicts if necessary.

You can have more than one shelved change outstanding at a time; each shelved change has a distinct name. For details, see the help for "hg shelve".

Commands

shelve

save and set aside changes from the working directory:

hg shelve [OPTION]... [FILE]...

Shelving takes files that "hg status" reports as not clean, saves the modifications to a bundle (a shelved change), and reverts the files so that their state in the working directory becomes clean.

To restore these changes to the working directory, using "hg unshelve"; this will work even if you switch to a different commit.

When no files are specified, "hg shelve" saves all not-clean files. If specific files or directories are named, only changes to those files are shelved.

In bare shelve (when no files are specified, without interactive, include and exclude option), shelving remembers information if the working directory was on newly created branch, in other words working directory was on different branch than its first parent. In this situation unshelving restores branch information to the working directory.

Each shelved change has a name that makes it easier to find later. The name of a shelved change defaults to being based on the active bookmark, or if there is no active bookmark, the current named branch.  To specify a different name, use --name.

To see a list of existing shelved changes, use the --list option. For each shelved change, this will print its name, age, and description; use --patch or --stat for more details.

To delete specific shelved changes, use --delete. To delete all shelved changes, use --cleanup.

Options:

-A, --addremove

mark new/missing files as added/removed before shelving

-u, --unknown

store unknown files in the shelve

--cleanup

delete all shelved changes

--date <DATE>

shelve with the specified commit date

-d, --delete

delete the named shelved change(s)

-e, --edit

invoke editor on commit messages

-l, --list

list current shelves

-m,--message <TEXT>

use text as shelve message

-n,--name <NAME>

use the given name for the shelved commit

-p, --patch

show patch

-i, --interactive

interactive mode, only works while creating a shelve

--stat

output diffstat-style summary of changes

-I,--include <PATTERN[+]>

include names matching the given patterns

-X,--exclude <PATTERN[+]>

exclude names matching the given patterns

[+] marked option can be specified multiple times

unshelve

restore a shelved change to the working directory:

hg unshelve [[-n] SHELVED]

This command accepts an optional name of a shelved change to restore. If none is given, the most recent shelved change is used.

If a shelved change is applied successfully, the bundle that contains the shelved changes is moved to a backup location (.hg/shelve-backup).

Since you can restore a shelved change on top of an arbitrary commit, it is possible that unshelving will result in a conflict between your changes and the commits you are unshelving onto. If this occurs, you must resolve the conflict, then use --continue to complete the unshelve operation. (The bundle will not be moved until you successfully complete the unshelve.)

(Alternatively, you can use --abort to abandon an unshelve that causes a conflict. This reverts the unshelved changes, and leaves the bundle in place.)

If bare shelved change(when no files are specified, without interactive, include and exclude option) was done on newly created branch it would restore branch information to the working directory.

After a successful unshelve, the shelved changes are stored in a backup directory. Only the N most recent backups are kept. N defaults to 10 but can be overridden using the shelve.maxbackups configuration option.

Timestamp in seconds is used to decide order of backups. More than maxbackups backups are kept, if same timestamp prevents from deciding exact order of them, for safety.

Options:

-a, --abort

abort an incomplete unshelve operation

-c, --continue

continue an incomplete unshelve operation

-k, --keep

keep shelve after unshelving

-n,--name <NAME>

restore shelved change with given name

-t,--tool <VALUE>

specify merge tool

--date <DATE>

set date for temporary commits (DEPRECATED)

show

unified command to show various repository information (EXPERIMENTAL)

This extension provides the hg show command, which provides a central command for displaying commonly-accessed repository data and views of that data.

Commands

show

show various repository information:

hg show VIEW

A requested view of repository data is displayed.

If no view is requested, the list of available views is shown and the command aborts.

Note

There are no backwards compatibility guarantees for the output of this command. Output may change in any future Mercurial release.

Consumers wanting stable command output should specify a template via -T/--template.

List of available views:

bookmarks   bookmarks and their associated changeset

work        changesets that aren't finished

Options:

-T,--template <TEMPLATE>

display with template

strip

strip changesets and their descendants from history

This extension allows you to strip changesets and all their descendants from the repository. See the command help for details.

Commands

strip

strip changesets and all their descendants from the repository:

hg strip [-k] [-f] [-B bookmark] [-r] REV...

The strip command removes the specified changesets and all their descendants. If the working directory has uncommitted changes, the operation is aborted unless the --force flag is supplied, in which case changes will be discarded.

If a parent of the working directory is stripped, then the working directory will automatically be updated to the most recent available ancestor of the stripped parent after the operation completes.

Any stripped changesets are stored in .hg/strip-backup as a bundle (see hg help bundle and hg help unbundle). They can be restored by running hg unbundle .hg/strip-backup/BUNDLE, where BUNDLE is the bundle file created by the strip. Note that the local revision numbers will in general be different after the restore.

Use the --no-backup option to discard the backup bundle once the operation completes.

Strip is not a history-rewriting operation and can be used on changesets in the public phase. But if the stripped changesets have been pushed to a remote repository you will likely pull them again.

Return 0 on success.

Options:

-r,--rev <REV[+]>

strip specified revision (optional, can specify revisions without this option)

-f, --force

force removal of changesets, discard uncommitted changes (no backup)

--no-backup

no backups

--nobackup

no backups (DEPRECATED)

-n

ignored  (DEPRECATED)

-k, --keep

do not modify working directory during strip

-B,--bookmark <VALUE[+]>

remove revs only reachable from given bookmark

[+] marked option can be specified multiple times

transplant

command to transplant changesets from another branch

This extension allows you to transplant changes to another parent revision, possibly in another repository. The transplant is done using 'diff' patches.

Transplanted patches are recorded in .hg/transplant/transplants, as a map from a changeset hash to its hash in the source repository.

Commands

transplant

transplant changesets from another branch:

hg transplant [-s REPO] [-b BRANCH [-a]] [-p REV] [-m REV] [REV]...

Selected changesets will be applied on top of the current working directory with the log of the original changeset. The changesets are copied and will thus appear twice in the history with different identities.

Consider using the graft command if everything is inside the same repository - it will use merges and will usually give a better result. Use the rebase extension if the changesets are unpublished and you want to move them instead of copying them.

If --log is specified, log messages will have a comment appended of the form:

(transplanted from CHANGESETHASH)

You can rewrite the changelog message with the --filter option. Its argument will be invoked with the current changelog message as $1 and the patch as $2.

--source/-s specifies another repository to use for selecting changesets, just as if it temporarily had been pulled. If --branch/-b is specified, these revisions will be used as heads when deciding which changesets to transplant, just as if only these revisions had been pulled. If --all/-a is specified, all the revisions up to the heads specified with --branch will be transplanted.

Example:

  • transplant all changes up to REV on top of your current revision:

    hg transplant --branch REV --all

You can optionally mark selected transplanted changesets as merge changesets. You will not be prompted to transplant any ancestors of a merged transplant, and you can merge descendants of them normally instead of transplanting them.

Merge changesets may be transplanted directly by specifying the proper parent changeset by calling hg transplant --parent.

If no merges or revisions are provided, hg transplant will start an interactive changeset browser.

If a changeset application fails, you can fix the merge by hand and then resume where you left off by calling hg transplant --continue/-c.

Options:

-s,--source <REPO>

transplant changesets from REPO

-b,--branch <REV[+]>

use this source changeset as head

-a, --all

pull all changesets up to the --branch revisions

-p,--prune <REV[+]>

skip over REV

-m,--merge <REV[+]>

merge at REV

--parent <REV>

parent to choose when transplanting merge

-e, --edit

invoke editor on commit messages

--log

append transplant info to log message

-c, --continue

continue last transplant session after fixing conflicts

--filter <CMD>

filter changesets through command

[+] marked option can be specified multiple times

win32mbcs

allow the use of MBCS paths with problematic encodings

Some MBCS encodings are not good for some path operations (i.e. splitting path, case conversion, etc.) with its encoded bytes. We call such a encoding (i.e. shift_jis and big5) as "problematic encoding". This extension can be used to fix the issue with those encodings by wrapping some functions to convert to Unicode string before path operation.

This extension is useful for:

  • Japanese Windows users using shift_jis encoding.
  • Chinese Windows users using big5 encoding.
  • All users who use a repository with one of problematic encodings on case-insensitive file system.

This extension is not needed for:

  • Any user who use only ASCII chars in path.
  • Any user who do not use any of problematic encodings.

Note that there are some limitations on using this extension:

  • You should use single encoding in one repository.
  • If the repository path ends with 0x5c, .hg/hgrc cannot be read.
  • win32mbcs is not compatible with fixutf8 extension.

By default, win32mbcs uses encoding.encoding decided by Mercurial. You can specify the encoding by config option:

[win32mbcs]
encoding = sjis

It is useful for the users who want to commit with UTF-8 log message.

win32text

perform automatic newline conversion (DEPRECATED)

Deprecation: The win32text extension requires each user to configure the extension again and again for each clone since the configuration is not copied when cloning.

We have therefore made the eol as an alternative. The eol uses a version controlled file for its configuration and each clone will therefore use the right settings from the start.

To perform automatic newline conversion, use:

[extensions]
win32text =
[encode]
** = cleverencode:
# or ** = macencode:

[decode]
** = cleverdecode:
# or ** = macdecode:

If not doing conversion, to make sure you do not commit CRLF/CR by accident:

[hooks]
pretxncommit.crlf = python:hgext.win32text.forbidcrlf
# or pretxncommit.cr = python:hgext.win32text.forbidcr

To do the same check on a server to prevent CRLF/CR from being pushed or pulled:

[hooks]
pretxnchangegroup.crlf = python:hgext.win32text.forbidcrlf
# or pretxnchangegroup.cr = python:hgext.win32text.forbidcr

zeroconf

discover and advertise repositories on the local network

Zeroconf-enabled repositories will be announced in a network without the need to configure a server or a service. They can be discovered without knowing their actual IP address.

To allow other people to discover your repository using run hg serve in your repository:

$ cd test
$ hg serve

You can discover Zeroconf-enabled repositories by running hg paths:

$ hg paths
zc-test = http://example.com:8000/test

Files

/etc/mercurial/hgrc, $HOME/.hgrc, .hg/hgrc

This file contains defaults and configuration. Values in .hg/hgrc override those in $HOME/.hgrc, and these override settings made in the global /etc/mercurial/hgrc configuration. See hgrc(5) for details of the contents and format of these files.

.hgignore

This file contains regular expressions (one per line) that describe file names that should be ignored by hg. For details, see hgignore(5).

.hgsub

This file defines the locations of all subrepositories, and tells where the subrepository checkouts came from. For details, see hg help subrepos.

.hgsubstate

This file is where Mercurial stores all nested repository states. NB: This file should not be edited manually.

.hgtags

This file contains changeset hash values and text tag names (one of each separated by spaces) that correspond to tagged versions of the repository contents. The file content is encoded using UTF-8.

.hg/last-message.txt

This file is used by hg commit to store a backup of the commit message in case the commit fails.

.hg/localtags

This file can be used to define local tags which are not shared among repositories. The file format is the same as for .hgtags, but it is encoded using the local system encoding.

Some commands (e.g. revert) produce backup files ending in .orig, if the .orig file already exists and is not tracked by Mercurial, it will be overwritten.

Bugs

Probably lots, please post them to the mailing list (see Resources below) when you find them.

See Also

hgignore(5), hgrc(5)

Author

Written by Matt Mackall <mpm@selenic.com>

Resources

Main Web Site: https://mercurial-scm.org/

Source code repository: https://www.mercurial-scm.org/repo/hg

Mailing list: https://www.mercurial-scm.org/mailman/listinfo/mercurial/

Copying

Copyright (C) 2005-2017 Matt Mackall. Free use of this software is granted under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 or any later version.

Author

Matt Mackall <mpm@selenic.com>

Organization: Mercurial

Referenced By

hgignore(5), hgrc(5), hg-ssh(8), reposurgeon(1), schdiff(1).

Mercurial Manual