git-worktree man page

git-worktree — Manage multiple working trees

Synopsis

git worktree add [-f] [--detach] [--checkout] [-b <new-branch>] <path> [<branch>]
git worktree list [--porcelain]
git worktree lock [--reason <string>] <worktree>
git worktree prune [-n] [-v] [--expire <expire>]
git worktree unlock <worktree>

Description

Manage multiple working trees attached to the same repository.

A git repository can support multiple working trees, allowing you to check out more than one branch at a time. With git worktree add a new working tree is associated with the repository. This new working tree is called a "linked working tree" as opposed to the "main working tree" prepared by "git init" or "git clone". A repository has one main working tree (if it’s not a bare repository) and zero or more linked working trees.

When you are done with a linked working tree you can simply delete it. The working tree’s administrative files in the repository (see "Details" below) will eventually be removed automatically (see gc.worktreePruneExpire in git-config(1)), or you can run git worktree prune in the main or any linked working tree to clean up any stale administrative files.

If you move a linked working tree, you need to manually update the administrative files so that they do not get pruned automatically. See section "Details" for more information.

If a linked working tree is stored on a portable device or network share which is not always mounted, you can prevent its administrative files from being pruned by issuing the git worktree lock command, optionally specifying --reason to explain why the working tree is locked.

Commands

add <path> [<branch>]

Create <path> and checkout <branch> into it. The new working directory is linked to the current repository, sharing everything except working directory specific files such as HEAD, index, etc. - may also be specified as <branch>; it is synonymous with @{-1}.

If <branch> is omitted and neither -b nor -B nor --detached used, then, as a convenience, a new branch based at HEAD is created automatically, as if -b $(basename <path>) was specified.

list

List details of each worktree. The main worktree is listed first, followed by each of the linked worktrees. The output details include if the worktree is bare, the revision currently checked out, and the branch currently checked out (or detached HEAD if none).

lock

If a working tree is on a portable device or network share which is not always mounted, lock it to prevent its administrative files from being pruned automatically. This also prevents it from being moved or deleted. Optionally, specify a reason for the lock with --reason.

prune

Prune working tree information in $GIT_DIR/worktrees.

unlock

Unlock a working tree, allowing it to be pruned, moved or deleted.

Options

-f, --force
By default, add refuses to create a new working tree when <branch> is already checked out by another working tree. This option overrides that safeguard.
-b <new-branch>, -B <new-branch>
With add, create a new branch named <new-branch> starting at <branch>, and check out <new-branch> into the new working tree. If <branch> is omitted, it defaults to HEAD. By default, -b refuses to create a new branch if it already exists. -B overrides this safeguard, resetting <new-branch> to <branch>.
--detach
With add, detach HEAD in the new working tree. See "DETACHED HEAD" in git-checkout(1).
--[no-]checkout
By default, add checks out <branch>, however, --no-checkout can be used to suppress checkout in order to make customizations, such as configuring sparse-checkout. See "Sparse checkout" in git-read-tree(1).
-n, --dry-run
With prune, do not remove anything; just report what it would remove.
--porcelain
With list, output in an easy-to-parse format for scripts. This format will remain stable across Git versions and regardless of user configuration. See below for details.
-v, --verbose
With prune, report all removals.
--expire <time>
With prune, only expire unused working trees older than <time>.
--reason <string>
With lock, an explanation why the working tree is locked.

<worktree>

Working trees can be identified by path, either relative or absolute.

If the last path components in the working tree’s path is unique among working trees, it can be used to identify worktrees. For example if you only have two working trees, at "/abc/def/ghi" and "/abc/def/ggg", then "ghi" or "def/ghi" is enough to point to the former working tree.

Details

Each linked working tree has a private sub-directory in the repository’s $GIT_DIR/worktrees directory. The private sub-directory’s name is usually the base name of the linked working tree’s path, possibly appended with a number to make it unique. For example, when $GIT_DIR=/path/main/.git the command git worktree add /path/other/test-next next creates the linked working tree in /path/other/test-next and also creates a $GIT_DIR/worktrees/test-next directory (or $GIT_DIR/worktrees/test-next1 if test-next is already taken).

Within a linked working tree, $GIT_DIR is set to point to this private directory (e.g. /path/main/.git/worktrees/test-next in the example) and $GIT_COMMON_DIR is set to point back to the main working tree’s $GIT_DIR (e.g. /path/main/.git). These settings are made in a .git file located at the top directory of the linked working tree.

Path resolution via git rev-parse --git-path uses either $GIT_DIR or $GIT_COMMON_DIR depending on the path. For example, in the linked working tree git rev-parse --git-path HEAD returns /path/main/.git/worktrees/test-next/HEAD (not /path/other/test-next/.git/HEAD or /path/main/.git/HEAD) while git rev-parse --git-path refs/heads/master uses $GIT_COMMON_DIR and returns /path/main/.git/refs/heads/master, since refs are shared across all working trees.

See gitrepository-layout(5) for more information. The rule of thumb is do not make any assumption about whether a path belongs to $GIT_DIR or $GIT_COMMON_DIR when you need to directly access something inside $GIT_DIR. Use git rev-parse --git-path to get the final path.

If you move a linked working tree, you need to update the gitdir file in the entry’s directory. For example, if a linked working tree is moved to /newpath/test-next and its .git file points to /path/main/.git/worktrees/test-next, then update /path/main/.git/worktrees/test-next/gitdir to reference /newpath/test-next instead.

To prevent a $GIT_DIR/worktrees entry from being pruned (which can be useful in some situations, such as when the entry’s working tree is stored on a portable device), use the git worktree lock command, which adds a file named locked to the entry’s directory. The file contains the reason in plain text. For example, if a linked working tree’s .git file points to /path/main/.git/worktrees/test-next then a file named /path/main/.git/worktrees/test-next/locked will prevent the test-next entry from being pruned. See gitrepository-layout(5) for details.

List Output Format

The worktree list command has two output formats. The default format shows the details on a single line with columns. For example:

S git worktree list
/path/to/bare-source            (bare)
/path/to/linked-worktree        abcd1234 [master]
/path/to/other-linked-worktree  1234abc  (detached HEAD)

Porcelain Format

The porcelain format has a line per attribute. Attributes are listed with a label and value separated by a single space. Boolean attributes (like bare and detached) are listed as a label only, and are only present if and only if the value is true. An empty line indicates the end of a worktree. For example:

S git worktree list --porcelain
worktree /path/to/bare-source
bare

worktree /path/to/linked-worktree
HEAD abcd1234abcd1234abcd1234abcd1234abcd1234
branch refs/heads/master

worktree /path/to/other-linked-worktree
HEAD 1234abc1234abc1234abc1234abc1234abc1234a
detached

Examples

You are in the middle of a refactoring session and your boss comes in and demands that you fix something immediately. You might typically use git-stash(1) to store your changes away temporarily, however, your working tree is in such a state of disarray (with new, moved, and removed files, and other bits and pieces strewn around) that you don’t want to risk disturbing any of it. Instead, you create a temporary linked working tree to make the emergency fix, remove it when done, and then resume your earlier refactoring session.

$ git worktree add -b emergency-fix ../temp master
$ pushd ../temp
# ... hack hack hack ...
$ git commit -a -m 'emergency fix for boss'
$ popd
$ rm -rf ../temp
$ git worktree prune

Bugs

Multiple checkout in general is still experimental, and the support for submodules is incomplete. It is NOT recommended to make multiple checkouts of a superproject.

git-worktree could provide more automation for tasks currently performed manually, such as:

· remove to remove a linked working tree and its administrative files (and warn if the working tree is dirty)

· mv to move or rename a working tree and update its administrative files

Git

Part of the git(1) suite

Referenced By

git(1), salt(7).

11/30/2016 Git 2.11.0 Git Manual