git-worktree man page
git-worktree — Manage multiple working trees
git worktree add [-f] [--detach] [--checkout] [-b <new-branch>] <path> [<branch>] git worktree list [--porcelain] git worktree lock [--reason <string>] <worktree> git worktree prune [-n] [-v] [--expire <expire>] git worktree unlock <worktree>
Manage multiple working trees attached to the same repository.
A git repository can support multiple working trees, allowing you to check out more than one branch at a time. With
git worktree add a new working tree is associated with the repository. This new working tree is called a "linked working tree" as opposed to the "main working tree" prepared by "git init" or "git clone". A repository has one main working tree (if it’s not a bare repository) and zero or more linked working trees.
When you are done with a linked working tree you can simply delete it. The working tree’s administrative files in the repository (see "Details" below) will eventually be removed automatically (see
gc.worktreePruneExpire in git-config(1)), or you can run
git worktree prune in the main or any linked working tree to clean up any stale administrative files.
If you move a linked working tree, you need to manually update the administrative files so that they do not get pruned automatically. See section "Details" for more information.
If a linked working tree is stored on a portable device or network share which is not always mounted, you can prevent its administrative files from being pruned by issuing the
git worktree lock command, optionally specifying
--reason to explain why the working tree is locked.
- add <path> [<branch>]
<branch>into it. The new working directory is linked to the current repository, sharing everything except working directory specific files such as HEAD, index, etc.
-may also be specified as
<branch>; it is synonymous with
<branch>is omitted and neither
--detachedused, then, as a convenience, a new branch based at HEAD is created automatically, as if
-b $(basename <path>)was specified.
- List details of each worktree. The main worktree is listed first, followed by each of the linked worktrees. The output details include if the worktree is bare, the revision currently checked out, and the branch currently checked out (or detached HEAD if none).
- If a working tree is on a portable device or network share which is not always mounted, lock it to prevent its administrative files from being pruned automatically. This also prevents it from being moved or deleted. Optionally, specify a reason for the lock with
- Prune working tree information in $GIT_DIR/worktrees.
- Unlock a working tree, allowing it to be pruned, moved or deleted.
- -f , --force
- By default,
addrefuses to create a new working tree when
<branch>is already checked out by another working tree. This option overrides that safeguard.
- -b <new-branch> , -B <new-branch>
add, create a new branch named
<branch>, and check out
<new-branch>into the new working tree. If
<branch>is omitted, it defaults to HEAD. By default,
-brefuses to create a new branch if it already exists.
-Boverrides this safeguard, resetting
add, detach HEAD in the new working tree. See "DETACHED HEAD" in git-checkout(1).
- By default,
--no-checkoutcan be used to suppress checkout in order to make customizations, such as configuring sparse-checkout. See "Sparse checkout" in git-read-tree(1).
- -n , --dry-run
prune, do not remove anything; just report what it would remove.
list, output in an easy-to-parse format for scripts. This format will remain stable across Git versions and regardless of user configuration. See below for details.
- -v , --verbose
prune, report all removals.
- --expire <time>
prune, only expire unused working trees older than <time>.
- --reason <string>
lock, an explanation why the working tree is locked.
- Working trees can be identified by path, either relative or absolute.
If the last path components in the working tree’s path is unique among working trees, it can be used to identify worktrees. For example if you only have to working trees at "/abc/def/ghi" and "/abc/def/ggg", then "ghi" or "def/ghi" is enough to point to the former working tree.
Each linked working tree has a private sub-directory in the repository’s $GIT_DIR/worktrees directory. The private sub-directory’s name is usually the base name of the linked working tree’s path, possibly appended with a number to make it unique. For example, when
$GIT_DIR=/path/main/.git the command
git worktree add /path/other/test-next next creates the linked working tree in
/path/other/test-next and also creates a
$GIT_DIR/worktrees/test-next directory (or
test-next is already taken).
Within a linked working tree, $GIT_DIR is set to point to this private directory (e.g.
/path/main/.git/worktrees/test-next in the example) and $GIT_COMMON_DIR is set to point back to the main working tree’s $GIT_DIR (e.g.
/path/main/.git). These settings are made in a
.git file located at the top directory of the linked working tree.
Path resolution via
git rev-parse --git-path uses either $GIT_DIR or $GIT_COMMON_DIR depending on the path. For example, in the linked working tree
git rev-parse --git-path HEAD returns
git rev-parse --git-path refs/heads/master uses $GIT_COMMON_DIR and returns
/path/main/.git/refs/heads/master, since refs are shared across all working trees.
See gitrepository-layout(5) for more information. The rule of thumb is do not make any assumption about whether a path belongs to $GIT_DIR or $GIT_COMMON_DIR when you need to directly access something inside $GIT_DIR. Use
git rev-parse --git-path to get the final path.
If you move a linked working tree, you need to update the gitdir file in the entry’s directory. For example, if a linked working tree is moved to
/newpath/test-next and its
.git file points to
/path/main/.git/worktrees/test-next, then update
/path/main/.git/worktrees/test-next/gitdir to reference
To prevent a $GIT_DIR/worktrees entry from being pruned (which can be useful in some situations, such as when the entry’s working tree is stored on a portable device), use the
git worktree lock command, which adds a file named locked to the entry’s directory. The file contains the reason in plain text. For example, if a linked working tree’s
.git file points to
/path/main/.git/worktrees/test-next then a file named
/path/main/.git/worktrees/test-next/locked will prevent the
test-next entry from being pruned. See gitrepository-layout(5) for details.
List Output Format
The worktree list command has two output formats. The default format shows the details on a single line with columns. For example:
S git worktree list /path/to/bare-source (bare) /path/to/linked-worktree abcd1234 [master] /path/to/other-linked-worktree 1234abc (detached HEAD)
The porcelain format has a line per attribute. Attributes are listed with a label and value separated by a single space. Boolean attributes (like bare and detached) are listed as a label only, and are only present if and only if the value is true. An empty line indicates the end of a worktree. For example:
S git worktree list --porcelain worktree /path/to/bare-source bare worktree /path/to/linked-worktree HEAD abcd1234abcd1234abcd1234abcd1234abcd1234 branch refs/heads/master worktree /path/to/other-linked-worktree HEAD 1234abc1234abc1234abc1234abc1234abc1234a detached
You are in the middle of a refactoring session and your boss comes in and demands that you fix something immediately. You might typically use git-stash(1) to store your changes away temporarily, however, your working tree is in such a state of disarray (with new, moved, and removed files, and other bits and pieces strewn around) that you don’t want to risk disturbing any of it. Instead, you create a temporary linked working tree to make the emergency fix, remove it when done, and then resume your earlier refactoring session.
$ git worktree add -b emergency-fix ../temp master $ pushd ../temp # ... hack hack hack ... $ git commit -a -m 'emergency fix for boss' $ popd $ rm -rf ../temp $ git worktree prune
Multiple checkout in general is still experimental, and the support for submodules is incomplete. It is NOT recommended to make multiple checkouts of a superproject.
git-worktree could provide more automation for tasks currently performed manually, such as:
removeto remove a linked working tree and its administrative files (and warn if the working tree is dirty)
mvto move or rename a working tree and update its administrative files
Part of the git(1) suite
Explore man page connections for git-worktree(1).