gfortran - Man Page

GNU Fortran compiler

Examples (TL;DR)


gfortran [-c|-S|-E]
        [-g] [-pg] [-Olevel]
        [-Wwarn...] [-pedantic]
        [-Idir...] [-Ldir...]
        [-Dmacro[=defn]...] [-Umacro]
        [-o outfile] infile...

Only the most useful options are listed here; see below for the remainder.


The gfortran command supports all the options supported by the gcc command.  Only options specific to GNU Fortran are documented here.

All GCC and GNU Fortran options are accepted both by gfortran and by gcc (as well as any other drivers built at the same time, such as g++), since adding GNU Fortran to the GCC distribution enables acceptance of GNU Fortran options by all of the relevant drivers.

In some cases, options have positive and negative forms; the negative form of -ffoo would be -fno-foo. This manual documents only one of these two forms, whichever one is not the default.


Here is a summary of all the options specific to GNU Fortran, grouped by type.  Explanations are in the following sections.

Fortran Language Options

-fall-intrinsics -fallow-argument-mismatch -fallow-invalid-boz -fbackslash -fcray-pointer -fd-lines-as-code -fd-lines-as-comments -fdec -fdec-char-conversions -fdec-structure -fdec-intrinsic-ints -fdec-static -fdec-math -fdec-include -fdec-format-defaults -fdec-blank-format-item -fdefault-double-8 -fdefault-integer-8 -fdefault-real-8 -fdefault-real-10 -fdefault-real-16 -fdollar-ok -ffixed-line-length-n -ffixed-line-length-none -fpad-source -ffree-form -ffree-line-length-n -ffree-line-length-none -fimplicit-none -finteger-4-integer-8 -fmax-identifier-length -fmodule-private -ffixed-form -fno-range-check -fopenacc -fopenmp -fopenmp-allocators -fopenmp-simd -freal-4-real-10 -freal-4-real-16 -freal-4-real-8 -freal-8-real-10 -freal-8-real-16 -freal-8-real-4 -std=std -ftest-forall-temp

Preprocessing Options

-A-question[=answer] -Aquestion=answer -C -CC -Dmacro[=defn] -H -P -Umacro -cpp -dD -dI -dM -dN -dU -fworking-directory -imultilib dir -iprefix file -iquote -isysroot dir -isystem dir -nocpp  -nostdinc -undef

Error and Warning Options

-Waliasing -Wall -Wampersand -Warray-bounds -Wc-binding-type -Wcharacter-truncation -Wconversion -Wdo-subscript -Wfunction-elimination -Wimplicit-interface -Wimplicit-procedure -Wintrinsic-shadow -Wuse-without-only -Wintrinsics-std -Wline-truncation -Wno-align-commons -Wno-overwrite-recursive -Wno-tabs -Wreal-q-constant -Wsurprising -Wunderflow -Wunused-parameter -Wrealloc-lhs -Wrealloc-lhs-all -Wfrontend-loop-interchange -Wtarget-lifetime -fmax-errors=n -fsyntax-only -pedantic -pedantic-errors

Debugging Options

-fbacktrace -fdebug-aux-vars -ffpe-trap=list -ffpe-summary=list

Directory Options

-Idir  -Jdir -fintrinsic-modules-path dir

Link Options

-static-libgfortran  -static-libquadmath

Runtime Options

-fconvert=conversion -fmax-subrecord-length=length -frecord-marker=length -fsign-zero

Interoperability Options

-fc-prototypes -fc-prototypes-external

Code Generation Options

-faggressive-function-elimination -fblas-matmul-limit=n -fbounds-check -ftail-call-workaround -ftail-call-workaround=n -fcheck-array-temporaries -fcheck=<all|array-temps|bits|bounds|do|mem|pointer|recursion> -fcoarray=<none|single|lib> -fexternal-blas -ff2c -ffrontend-loop-interchange -ffrontend-optimize -finit-character=n -finit-integer=n -finit-local-zero -finit-derived -finit-logical=<true|false> -finit-real=<zero|inf|-inf|nan|snan> -finline-matmul-limit=n -finline-arg-packing -fmax-array-constructor=n -fmax-stack-var-size=n -fno-align-commons -fno-automatic -fno-protect-parens -fno-underscoring -fsecond-underscore -fpack-derived -frealloc-lhs -frecursive -frepack-arrays -fshort-enums -fstack-arrays

Developer Options

-fdump-fortran-global -fdump-fortran-optimized -fdump-fortran-original -fdump-parse-tree -save-temps

Options controlling Fortran dialect

The following options control the details of the Fortran dialect accepted by the compiler:


Specify the layout used by the source file.  The free form layout was introduced in Fortran 90.  Fixed form was traditionally used in older Fortran programs.  When neither option is specified, the source form is determined by the file extension.


This option causes all intrinsic procedures (including the GNU-specific extensions) to be accepted.  This can be useful with -std= to force standard-compliance but get access to the full range of intrinsics available with gfortran.  As a consequence, -Wintrinsics-std will be ignored and no user-defined procedure with the same name as any intrinsic will be called except when it is explicitly declared EXTERNAL.


Some code contains calls to external procedures with mismatches between the calls and the procedure definition, or with mismatches between different calls. Such code is non-conforming, and will usually be flagged with an error.  This options degrades the error to a warning, which can only be disabled by disabling all warnings via -w.  Only a single occurrence per argument is flagged by this warning.  -fallow-argument-mismatch is implied by -std=legacy.

Using this option is strongly discouraged.  It is possible to provide standard-conforming code which allows different types of arguments by using an explicit interface and TYPE(*).


A BOZ literal constant can occur in a limited number of contexts in standard conforming Fortran.  This option degrades an error condition to a warning, and allows a BOZ literal constant to appear where the Fortran standard would otherwise prohibit its use.


Enable special treatment for lines beginning with d or D in fixed form sources.  If the -fd-lines-as-code option is given they are treated as if the first column contained a blank.  If the -fd-lines-as-comments option is given, they are treated as comment lines.


DEC compatibility mode. Enables extensions and other features that mimic the default behavior of older compilers (such as DEC). These features are non-standard and should be avoided at all costs. For details on GNU Fortran's implementation of these extensions see the full documentation.

Other flags enabled by this switch are: -fdollar-ok -fcray-pointer -fdec-char-conversions -fdec-structure -fdec-intrinsic-ints -fdec-static -fdec-math -fdec-include -fdec-blank-format-item -fdec-format-defaults

If -fd-lines-as-code/-fd-lines-as-comments are unset, then -fdec also sets -fd-lines-as-comments.


Enable the use of character literals in assignments and DATA statements for non-character variables.


Enable DEC STRUCTURE and RECORD as well as UNION, MAP, and dot ('.') as a member separator (in addition to '%'). This is provided for compatibility only; Fortran 90 derived types should be used instead where possible.


Enable B/I/J/K kind variants of existing integer functions (e.g. BIAND, IIAND, JIAND, etc...). For a complete list of intrinsics see the full documentation.


Obsolete flag.  The purpose of this option was to enable legacy math intrinsics such as COTAN and degree-valued trigonometric functions (e.g. TAND, ATAND, etc...) for compatability with older code. This option is no longer operable. The trigonometric functions are now either  part of Fortran 2023 or GNU extensions.


Enable DEC-style STATIC and AUTOMATIC attributes to explicitly specify the storage of variables and other objects.


Enable parsing of INCLUDE as a statement in addition to parsing it as INCLUDE line.  When parsed as INCLUDE statement, INCLUDE does not have to be on a single line and can use line continuations.


Enable format specifiers F, G and I to be used without width specifiers, default widths will be used instead.


Enable a blank format item at the end of a format specification i.e. nothing following the final comma.


Allow $ as a valid non-first character in a symbol name. Symbols  that start with $ are rejected since it is unclear which rules to apply to implicit typing as different vendors implement different rules. Using $ in IMPLICIT statements is also rejected.


Change the interpretation of backslashes in string literals from a single backslash character to "C-style" escape characters. The following combinations are expanded \a, \b, \f, \n, \r, \t, \v, \\, and \0 to the ASCII characters alert, backspace, form feed, newline, carriage return, horizontal tab, vertical tab, backslash, and NUL, respectively. Additionally, \xnn, \unnnn and \Unnnnnnnn (where each n is a hexadecimal digit) are translated into the Unicode characters corresponding to the specified code points. All other combinations of a character preceded by \ are unexpanded.


Set the default accessibility of module entities to PRIVATE. Use-associated entities will not be accessible unless they are explicitly declared as PUBLIC.


Set column after which characters are ignored in typical fixed-form lines in the source file, and, unless -fno-pad-source, through which spaces are assumed (as if padded to that length) after the ends of short fixed-form lines.

Popular values for n include 72 (the standard and the default), 80 (card image), and 132 (corresponding to "extended-source" options in some popular compilers). n may also be none, meaning that the entire line is meaningful and that continued character constants never have implicit spaces appended to them to fill out the line. -ffixed-line-length-0 means the same thing as -ffixed-line-length-none.


By default fixed-form lines have spaces assumed (as if padded to that length) after the ends of short fixed-form lines.  This is not done either if -ffixed-line-length-0, -ffixed-line-length-none or if -fno-pad-source option is used.  With any of those options continued character constants never have implicit spaces appended to them to fill out the line.


Set column after which characters are ignored in typical free-form lines in the source file. The default value is 132. n may be none, meaning that the entire line is meaningful. -ffree-line-length-0 means the same thing as -ffree-line-length-none.


Specify the maximum allowed identifier length. Typical values are 31 (Fortran 95) and 63 (Fortran 2003 and later).


Specify that no implicit typing is allowed, unless overridden by explicit IMPLICIT statements.  This is the equivalent of adding implicit none to the start of every procedure.


Enable the Cray pointer extension, which provides C-like pointer functionality.


Enable handling of OpenACC directives !$acc in free-form Fortran and !$acc, c$acc and *$acc in fixed-form Fortran.  When -fopenacc is specified, the compiler generates accelerated code according to the OpenACC Application Programming Interface v2.6 <>.  This option implies -pthread, and thus is only supported on targets that have support for -pthread. The option -fopenacc implies -frecursive.


Enable handling of OpenMP directives !$omp in Fortran.  It additionally enables the conditional compilation sentinel !$ in Fortran.  In fixed source form Fortran, the sentinels can also start with c or *.  When -fopenmp is specified, the compiler generates parallel code according to the OpenMP Application Program Interface v4.5 <>.  This option implies -pthread, and thus is only supported on targets that have support for -pthread. -fopenmp implies -fopenmp-simd and -frecursive.


Enables handling of allocation, reallocation and deallocation of Fortran allocatable and pointer variables that are allocated using the !$omp allocators and !$omp allocate constructs.  Files containing either directive have to be compiled with this option in addition to -fopenmp.  Additionally, all files that might deallocate or reallocate a variable that has been allocated with an OpenMP allocator have to be compiled with this option.  This includes intrinsic assignment to allocatable variables when reallocation may occur and deallocation due to either of the following: end of scope, explicit deallocation, intent(out), deallocation of allocatable components etc. Files not changing the allocation status or only for components of a derived type that have not been allocated using those two directives do not need to be compiled with this option.  Nor do files that handle such variables after they have been deallocated or allocated by the normal Fortran allocator.


Enable handling of OpenMP's simd, declare simd, declare reduction, assume, ordered, scan and loop directive, and of combined or composite directives with simd as constituent with  !$omp in Fortran.  It additionally enables the conditional compilation sentinel !$ in Fortran.  In fixed source form Fortran, the sentinels can also start with c or *.  Other OpenMP directives are ignored.  Unless -fopenmp is additionally specified, the loop region binds to the current task region, independent of the specified bind clause.


Disable range checking on results of simplification of constant expressions during compilation.  For example, GNU Fortran will give an error at compile time when simplifying a = 1. / 0. With this option, no error will be given and a will be assigned the value +Infinity.  If an expression evaluates to a value outside of the relevant range of [-HUGE():HUGE()], then the expression will be replaced by -Inf or +Inf as appropriate. Similarly, DATA i/Z'FFFFFFFF'/ will result in an integer overflow on most systems, but with -fno-range-check the value will "wrap around" and i will be initialized to -1 instead.


Set the default integer and logical types to an 8 byte wide type.  This option also affects the kind of integer constants like 42. Unlike -finteger-4-integer-8, it does not promote variables with explicit kind declaration.


Set the default real type to an 8 byte wide type.  This option also affects the kind of non-double real constants like 1.0.  This option promotes the default width of DOUBLE PRECISION and double real constants like 1.d0 to 16 bytes if possible.  If -fdefault-double-8 is given along with fdefault-real-8, DOUBLE PRECISION and double real constants are not promoted.  Unlike -freal-4-real-8, fdefault-real-8 does not promote variables with explicit kind declarations.


Set the default real type to an 10 byte wide type.  This option also affects the kind of non-double real constants like 1.0.  This option promotes the default width of DOUBLE PRECISION and double real constants like 1.d0 to 16 bytes if possible.  If -fdefault-double-8 is given along with fdefault-real-10, DOUBLE PRECISION and double real constants are not promoted.  Unlike -freal-4-real-10, fdefault-real-10 does not promote variables with explicit kind declarations.


Set the default real type to an 16 byte wide type.  This option also affects the kind of non-double real constants like 1.0.  This option promotes the default width of DOUBLE PRECISION and double real constants like 1.d0 to 16 bytes if possible.  If -fdefault-double-8 is given along with fdefault-real-16, DOUBLE PRECISION and double real constants are not promoted.  Unlike -freal-4-real-16, fdefault-real-16 does not promote variables with explicit kind declarations.


Set the DOUBLE PRECISION type and double real constants like 1.d0 to an 8 byte wide type.  Do nothing if this is already the default.  This option prevents -fdefault-real-8, -fdefault-real-10, and -fdefault-real-16, from promoting DOUBLE PRECISION and double real constants like 1.d0 to 16 bytes.


Promote all INTEGER(KIND=4) entities to an INTEGER(KIND=8) entities.  If KIND=8 is unavailable, then an error will be issued. This option should be used with care and may not be suitable for your codes. Areas of possible concern include calls to external procedures, alignment in EQUIVALENCE and/or COMMON, generic interfaces, BOZ literal constant conversion, and I/O.  Inspection of the intermediate representation of the translated Fortran code, produced by -fdump-tree-original, is suggested.


Promote all REAL(KIND=M) entities to REAL(KIND=N) entities. If REAL(KIND=N) is unavailable, then an error will be issued. The -freal-4- flags also affect the default real kind and the -freal-8- flags also the double-precision real kind.  All other real-kind types are unaffected by this option.  The promotion is also applied to real literal constants of default and double-precision kind and a specified kind number of 4 or 8, respectively. However, -fdefault-real-8, -fdefault-real-10, -fdefault-real-10, and -fdefault-double-8 take precedence for the default and double-precision real kinds, both for real literal constants and for declarations without a kind number. Note that for REAL(KIND=KIND(1.0)) the literal may get promoted and then the result may get promoted again. These options should be used with care and may not be suitable for your codes.  Areas of possible concern include calls to external procedures, alignment in EQUIVALENCE and/or COMMON, generic interfaces, BOZ literal constant conversion, and I/O and calls to intrinsic procedures when passing a value to the kind= dummy argument.  Inspection of the intermediate representation of the translated Fortran code, produced by -fdump-fortran-original or -fdump-tree-original, is suggested.


Specify the standard to which the program is expected to conform, which may be one of f95, f2003, f2008, f2018, f2023, gnu, or legacy.  The default value for std is gnu, which specifies a superset of the latest Fortran standard that includes all of the extensions supported by GNU Fortran, although warnings will be given for obsolete extensions not recommended for use in new code.  The legacy value is equivalent but without the warnings for obsolete extensions, and may be useful for old non-standard programs.  The f95, f2003, f2008, f2018, and f2023 values specify strict conformance to the Fortran 95, Fortran 2003, Fortran 2008, Fortran 2018 and Fortran 2023 standards, respectively; errors are given for all extensions beyond the relevant language standard, and warnings are given for the Fortran 77 features that are permitted but obsolescent in later standards. The deprecated option -std=f2008ts acts as an alias for -std=f2018. It is only present for backwards compatibility with earlier gfortran versions and should not be used any more.


Enhance test coverage by forcing most forall assignments to use temporary.

Enable and customize preprocessing

Many Fortran compilers including GNU Fortran allow passing the source code through a C preprocessor (CPP; sometimes also called the Fortran preprocessor, FPP) to allow for conditional compilation.  In the case of GNU Fortran, this is the GNU C Preprocessor in the traditional mode.  On systems with case-preserving file names, the preprocessor is automatically invoked if the filename extension is .F, .FOR, .FTN, .fpp, .FPP, .F90, .F95, .F03 or .F08.  To manually invoke the preprocessor on any file, use -cpp, to disable preprocessing on files where the preprocessor is run automatically, use -nocpp.

If a preprocessed file includes another file with the Fortran INCLUDE statement, the included file is not preprocessed.  To preprocess included files, use the equivalent preprocessor statement #include.

If GNU Fortran invokes the preprocessor, __GFORTRAN__ is defined.  The macros __GNUC__, __GNUC_MINOR__ and __GNUC_PATCHLEVEL__ can be used to determine the version of the compiler.  See Top,,Overview,cpp,The C Preprocessor for details.

GNU Fortran supports a number of INTEGER and REAL kind types in additional to the kind types required by the Fortran standard. The availability of any given kind type is architecture dependent.  The following pre-defined preprocessor macros can be used to conditionally include code for these additional kind types: __GFC_INT_1__, __GFC_INT_2__, __GFC_INT_8__, __GFC_INT_16__, __GFC_REAL_10__, and __GFC_REAL_16__.

While CPP is the de-facto standard for preprocessing Fortran code, Part 3 of the Fortran 95 standard (ISO/IEC 1539-3:1998) defines Conditional Compilation, which is not widely used and not directly supported by the GNU Fortran compiler.  You can use the program coco to preprocess such files (<>).

The following options control preprocessing of Fortran code:


Enable preprocessing. The preprocessor is automatically invoked if the file extension is .fpp, .FPP,  .F, .FOR, .FTN, .F90, .F95, .F03 or .F08. Use this option to manually enable preprocessing of any kind of Fortran file.

To disable preprocessing of files with any of the above listed extensions, use the negative form: -nocpp.

The preprocessor is run in traditional mode. Any restrictions of the file-format, especially the limits on line length, apply for preprocessed output as well, so it might be advisable to use the -ffree-line-length-none or -ffixed-line-length-none options.


Instead of the normal output, generate a list of '#define' directives for all the macros defined during the execution of the preprocessor, including predefined macros. This gives you a way of finding out what is predefined in your version of the preprocessor. Assuming you have no file foo.f90, the command

          touch foo.f90; gfortran -cpp -E -dM foo.f90

will show all the predefined macros.


Like -dM except in two respects: it does not include the predefined macros, and it outputs both the #define directives and the result of preprocessing. Both kinds of output go to the standard output file.


Like -dD, but emit only the macro names, not their expansions.


Like dD except that only macros that are expanded, or whose definedness is tested in preprocessor directives, are output; the  output is delayed until the use or test of the macro; and '#undef' directives are also output for macros tested but undefined at the time.


Output '#include' directives in addition to the result of preprocessing.


Enable generation of linemarkers in the preprocessor output that will let the compiler know the current working directory at the time of preprocessing. When this option is enabled, the preprocessor will emit, after the initial linemarker, a second linemarker with the current working directory followed by two slashes. GCC will use this directory, when it is present in the preprocessed input, as the directory emitted as the current working directory in some debugging information formats. This option is implicitly enabled if debugging information is enabled, but this can be inhibited with the negated form -fno-working-directory. If the -P flag is present in the command line, this option has no effect, since no #line directives are emitted whatsoever.

-idirafter dir

Search dir for include files, but do it after all directories specified with -I and the standard system directories have been exhausted. dir is treated as a system include directory. If dir begins with =, then the = will be replaced by the sysroot prefix; see --sysroot and -isysroot.

-imultilib dir

Use dir as a subdirectory of the directory containing target-specific C++ headers.

-iprefix prefix

Specify prefix as the prefix for subsequent -iwithprefix options. If the prefix represents a directory, you should include the final '/'.

-isysroot dir

This option is like the --sysroot option, but applies only to header files. See the --sysroot option for more information.

-iquote dir

Search dir only for header files requested with #include "file"; they are not searched for #include <file>, before all directories specified by -I and before the standard system directories. If dir begins with =, then the = will be replaced by the sysroot prefix; see --sysroot and -isysroot.

-isystem dir

Search dir for header files, after all directories specified by -I but before the standard system directories. Mark it as a system directory, so that it gets the same special treatment as is applied to the standard system directories. If dir begins with =, then the = will be replaced by the sysroot prefix; see --sysroot and -isysroot.


Do not search the standard system directories for header files. Only the directories you have specified with -I options (and the directory of the current file, if appropriate) are searched.


Do not predefine any system-specific or GCC-specific macros. The standard predefined macros remain defined.


Make an assertion with the predicate predicate and answer answer. This form is preferred to the older form -A predicate(answer), which is still supported, because it does not use shell special characters.


Cancel an assertion with the predicate predicate and answer answer.


Do not discard comments. All comments are passed through to the output file, except for comments in processed directives, which are deleted along with the directive.

You should be prepared for side effects when using -C; it causes the preprocessor to treat comments as tokens in their own right. For example, comments appearing at the start of what would be a directive line have the effect of turning that line into an ordinary source line, since the first token on the line is no longer a '#'.

Warning: this currently handles C-Style comments only. The preprocessor does not yet recognize Fortran-style comments.


Do not discard comments, including during macro expansion. This is like -C, except that comments contained within macros are also passed through to the output file where the macro is expanded.

In addition to the side-effects of the -C option, the -CC option causes all C++-style comments inside a macro to be converted to C-style comments. This is to prevent later use of that macro from inadvertently commenting out the remainder of the source line. The -CC option is generally used to support lint comments.

Warning: this currently handles C- and C++-Style comments only. The preprocessor does not yet recognize Fortran-style comments.


Predefine name as a macro, with definition 1.


The contents of definition are tokenized and processed as if they appeared during translation phase three in a '#define' directive. In particular, the definition will be truncated by embedded newline characters.

If you are invoking the preprocessor from a shell or shell-like program you may need to use the shell's quoting syntax to protect characters such as spaces that have a meaning in the shell syntax.

If you wish to define a function-like macro on the command line, write its argument list with surrounding parentheses before the equals sign (if any). Parentheses are meaningful to most shells, so you will need to quote the option. With sh and csh, -D'name(args...)=definition' works.

-D and -U options are processed in the order they are given on the command line. All -imacros file and -include file options are processed after all -D and -U options.


Print the name of each header file used, in addition to other normal activities. Each name is indented to show how deep in the '#include' stack it is.


Inhibit generation of linemarkers in the output from the preprocessor. This might be useful when running the preprocessor on something that is not C code, and will be sent to a program which might be confused by the linemarkers.


Cancel any previous definition of name, either built in or provided with a -D option.

Options to request or suppress errors and warnings

Errors are diagnostic messages that report that the GNU Fortran compiler cannot compile the relevant piece of source code.  The compiler will continue to process the program in an attempt to report further errors to aid in debugging, but will not produce any compiled output.

Warnings are diagnostic messages that report constructions which are not inherently erroneous but which are risky or suggest there is likely to be a bug in the program.  Unless -Werror is specified, they do not prevent compilation of the program.

You can request many specific warnings with options beginning -W, for example -Wimplicit to request warnings on implicit declarations.  Each of these specific warning options also has a negative form beginning -Wno- to turn off warnings; for example, -Wno-implicit.  This manual lists only one of the two forms, whichever is not the default.

These options control the amount and kinds of errors and warnings produced by GNU Fortran:


Limits the maximum number of error messages to n, at which point GNU Fortran bails out rather than attempting to continue processing the source code.  If n is 0, there is no limit on the number of error messages produced.


Check the code for syntax errors, but do not actually compile it.  This will generate module files for each module present in the code, but no other output file.


Issue warnings for uses of extensions to Fortran. -pedantic also applies to C-language constructs where they occur in GNU Fortran source files, such as use of \e in a character constant within a directive like #include.

Valid Fortran programs should compile properly with or without this option. However, without this option, certain GNU extensions and traditional Fortran features are supported as well. With this option, many of them are rejected.

Some users try to use -pedantic to check programs for conformance. They soon find that it does not do quite what they want---it finds some nonstandard practices, but not all. However, improvements to GNU Fortran in this area are welcome.

This should be used in conjunction with -std=f95, -std=f2003, -std=f2008, -std=f2018 or -std=f2023.


Like -pedantic, except that errors are produced rather than warnings.


Enables commonly used warning options pertaining to usage that we recommend avoiding and that we believe are easy to avoid. This currently includes -Waliasing, -Wampersand, -Wconversion, -Wsurprising, -Wc-binding-type, -Wintrinsics-std, -Wtabs, -Wintrinsic-shadow, -Wline-truncation, -Wtarget-lifetime, -Winteger-division, -Wreal-q-constant, -Wunused and -Wundefined-do-loop.


Warn about possible aliasing of dummy arguments. Specifically, it warns if the same actual argument is associated with a dummy argument with INTENT(IN) and a dummy argument with INTENT(OUT) in a call with an explicit interface.

The following example will trigger the warning.

            subroutine bar(a,b)
              integer, intent(in) :: a
              integer, intent(out) :: b
            end subroutine
          end interface
          integer :: a
          call bar(a,a)

Warn about missing ampersand in continued character constants. The warning is given with -Wampersand, -pedantic, -std=f95, -std=f2003, -std=f2008, -std=f2018 and -std=f2023. Note: With no ampersand given in a continued character constant, GNU Fortran assumes continuation at the first non-comment, non-whitespace character after the ampersand that initiated the continuation.


Warn about array temporaries generated by the compiler.  The information generated by this warning is sometimes useful in optimization, in order to avoid such temporaries.


Warn if the a variable might not be C interoperable.  In particular, warn if  the variable has been declared using an intrinsic type with default kind instead of using a kind parameter defined for C interoperability in the intrinsic ISO_C_Binding module.  This option is implied by -Wall.


Warn when a character assignment will truncate the assigned string.


Warn when a source code line will be truncated.  This option is implied by -Wall.  For free-form source code, the default is -Werror=line-truncation such that truncations are reported as error.


Warn about implicit conversions that are likely to change the value of  the expression after conversion. Implied by -Wall.


Warn about implicit conversions between different types and kinds. This option does not imply -Wconversion.


Enables some warning options for usages of language features which may be problematic. This currently includes -Wcompare-reals, -Wunused-parameter and -Wdo-subscript.


Warn when using -ffrontend-loop-interchange for performing loop interchanges.


Warn if a procedure is called without an explicit interface. Note this only checks that an explicit interface is present.  It does not check that the declared interfaces are consistent across program units.


Warn if a procedure is called that has neither an explicit interface nor has been declared as EXTERNAL.


Warn if a constant integer division truncates its result. As an example, 3/5 evaluates to 0.


Warn if gfortran finds a procedure named like an intrinsic not available in the currently selected standard (with -std) and treats it as EXTERNAL procedure because of this.  -fall-intrinsics can be used to never trigger this behavior and always link to the intrinsic regardless of the selected standard.


Do not warn when -fno-automatic is used with -frecursive. Recursion will be broken if the relevant local variables do not have the attribute AUTOMATIC explicitly declared. This option can be used to suppress the warning when it is known that recursion is not broken. Useful for build environments that use -Werror.


Produce a warning if a real-literal-constant contains a q exponent-letter.


Produce a warning when "suspicious" code constructs are encountered. While technically legal these usually indicate that an error has been made.

This currently produces a warning under the following circumstances:

  • An INTEGER SELECT construct has a CASE that can never be matched as its lower value is greater than its upper value.
  • A LOGICAL SELECT construct has three CASE statements.
  • A TRANSFER specifies a source that is shorter than the destination.
  • The type of a function result is declared more than once with the same type.  If -pedantic or standard-conforming mode is enabled, this is an error.
  • A CHARACTER variable is declared with negative length.
  • With -fopenmp, for fixed-form source code, when an omx vendor-extension sentinel is encountered. (The equivalent ompx, used in free-form source code, is diagnosed by default.)

By default, tabs are accepted as whitespace, but tabs are not members of the Fortran Character Set.  For continuation lines, a tab followed by a digit between 1 and 9 is supported.  -Wtabs will cause a warning to be issued if a tab is encountered. Note, -Wtabs is active for -pedantic, -std=f95, -std=f2003, -std=f2008, -std=f2018, -std=f2023 and -Wall.


Warn if a DO loop with step either 1 or -1 yields an underflow or an overflow during iteration of an induction variable of the loop. This option is implied by -Wall.


Produce a warning when numerical constant expressions are encountered, which yield an UNDERFLOW during compilation. Enabled by default.


Warn if a user-defined procedure or module procedure has the same name as an intrinsic; in this case, an explicit interface or EXTERNAL or INTRINSIC declaration might be needed to get calls later resolved to the desired intrinsic/procedure.  This option is implied by -Wall.


Warn if a USE statement has no ONLY qualifier and  thus implicitly imports all public entities of the used module.


Warn about unused dummy arguments. This option is implied by -Wall.


Contrary to gcc's meaning of -Wunused-parameter, gfortran's implementation of this option does not warn about unused dummy arguments (see -Wunused-dummy-argument), but about unused PARAMETER values. -Wunused-parameter is implied by -Wextra if also -Wunused or -Wall is used.


By default, gfortran warns about any occasion of variables being padded for proper alignment inside a COMMON block. This warning can be turned off via -Wno-align-commons. See also -falign-commons.


Warn if any calls to impure functions are eliminated by the optimizations enabled by the -ffrontend-optimize option. This option is implied by -Wextra.


Warn when the compiler might insert code to for allocation or reallocation of an allocatable array variable of intrinsic type in intrinsic assignments.  In hot loops, the Fortran 2003 reallocation feature may reduce the performance. If the array is already allocated with the correct shape, consider using a whole-array array-spec (e.g. (:,:,:)) for the variable on the left-hand side to prevent the reallocation check. Note that in some cases the warning is shown, even if the compiler will optimize reallocation checks away.  For instance, when the right-hand side contains the same variable multiplied by a scalar.  See also -frealloc-lhs.


Warn when the compiler inserts code to for allocation or reallocation of an allocatable variable; this includes scalars and derived types.


Warn when comparing real or complex types for equality or inequality. This option is implied by -Wextra.


Warn if the pointer in a pointer assignment might be longer than the its target. This option is implied by -Wall.


Warn if a DO loop is known to execute zero times at compile time.  This option is implied by -Wall.


Warn if an array subscript inside a DO loop could lead to an out-of-bounds access even if the compiler cannot prove that the statement is actually executed, in cases like

          real a(3)
          do i=1,4
            if (condition(i)) then
              a(i) = 1.2
            end if
          end do

This option is implied by -Wextra.


Turns all warnings into errors.

Some of these have no effect when compiling programs written in Fortran.

Options for debugging your program

GNU Fortran has various special options that are used for debugging your program.


Renames internal variables created by the gfortran front end and makes them accessible to a debugger.  The name of the internal variables then start with upper-case letters followed by an underscore.  This option is useful for debugging the compiler's code generation together with -fdump-tree-original and enabling debugging of the executable program by using -g or -ggdb3.


Specify a list of floating point exception traps to enable.  On most systems, if a floating point exception occurs and the trap for that exception is enabled, a SIGFPE signal will be sent and the program being aborted, producing a core file useful for debugging.  list is a (possibly empty) comma-separated list of either none (to clear the set of exceptions to be trapped), or of the following exceptions: invalid (invalid floating point operation, such as SQRT(-1.0)), zero (division by zero), overflow (overflow in a floating point operation), underflow (underflow in a floating point operation), inexact (loss of precision during operation), and denormal (operation performed on a denormal value).  The first five exceptions correspond to the five IEEE 754 exceptions, whereas the last one (denormal) is not part of the IEEE 754 standard but is available on some common architectures such as x86.

The first three exceptions (invalid, zero, and overflow) often indicate serious errors, and unless the program has provisions for dealing with these exceptions, enabling traps for these three exceptions is probably a good idea.

If the option is used more than once in the command line, the lists will be joined: 'ffpe-trap=list1 ffpe-trap=list2' is equivalent to ffpe-trap=list1,list2.

Note that once enabled an exception cannot be disabled (no negative form), except by clearing all traps by specifying none.

Many, if not most, floating point operations incur loss of precision due to rounding, and hence the ffpe-trap=inexact is likely to be uninteresting in practice.

By default no exception traps are enabled.


Specify a list of floating-point exceptions, whose flag status is printed to ERROR_UNIT when invoking STOP and ERROR STOP. list can be either none, all or a comma-separated list of the following exceptions: invalid, zero, overflow, underflow, inexact and denormal. (See -ffpe-trap for a description of the exceptions.)

If the option is used more than once in the command line, only the last one will be used.

By default, a summary for all exceptions but inexact is shown.


When a serious runtime error is encountered or a deadly signal is emitted (segmentation fault, illegal instruction, bus error, floating-point exception, and the other POSIX signals that have the action core), the Fortran runtime library tries to output a backtrace of the error. -fno-backtrace disables the backtrace generation. This option only has influence for compilation of the Fortran main program.

Influencing the linking step

These options come into play when the compiler links object files into an  executable output file. They are meaningless if the compiler is not doing  a link step.


On systems that provide libgfortran as a shared and a static library, this option forces the use of the static version. If no shared version of libgfortran was built when the compiler was configured, this option has no effect.


On systems that provide libquadmath as a shared and a static library, this option forces the use of the static version. If no shared version of libquadmath was built when the compiler was configured, this option has no effect.

Please note that the libquadmath runtime library is licensed under the GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL), and linking it statically introduces requirements when redistributing the resulting binaries.

Influencing runtime behavior

These options affect the runtime behavior of programs compiled with GNU Fortran.


Specify the representation of data for unformatted files.  Valid values for conversion on most systems are: native, the default; swap, swap between big- and little-endian; big-endian, use big-endian representation for unformatted files; little-endian, use little-endian representation for unformatted files.

On POWER systems which suppport -mabi=ieeelongdouble, there are additional options, which can be combined with others with commas.  Those are

@w<-fconvert=r16_ieee Use IEEE 128-bit format for>


@w<-fconvert=r16_ibm Use IBM long double format for>


This option has an effect only when used in the main program. The CONVERT specifier and the GFORTRAN_CONVERT_UNIT environment variable override the default specified by -fconvert.


Specify the length of record markers for unformatted files. Valid values for length are 4 and 8.  Default is 4. This is different from previous versions of gfortran, which specified a default record marker length of 8 on most systems.  If you want to read or write files compatible with earlier versions of gfortran, use -frecord-marker=8.


Specify the maximum length for a subrecord.  The maximum permitted value for length is 2147483639, which is also the default.  Only really useful for use by the gfortran testsuite.


When enabled, floating point numbers of value zero with the sign bit set are written as negative number in formatted output and treated as negative in the SIGN intrinsic.  -fno-sign-zero does not print the negative sign of zero values (or values rounded to zero for I/O) and regards zero as positive number in the SIGN intrinsic for compatibility with Fortran 77. The default is -fsign-zero.

GNU Fortran Developer Options

GNU Fortran has various special options that are used for debugging the GNU Fortran compiler.


Output a list of the global identifiers after translating into middle-end representation. Mostly useful for debugging the GNU Fortran compiler itself. The output generated by this option might change between releases.  This option may also generate internal compiler errors for features which have only recently been added.


Output the parse tree after front-end optimization.  Mostly useful for debugging the GNU Fortran compiler itself. The output generated by this option might change between releases.  This option may also generate internal compiler errors for features which have only recently been added.


Output the internal parse tree after translating the source program into internal representation.  This option is mostly useful for debugging the GNU Fortran compiler itself. The output generated by this option might change between releases. This option may also generate internal compiler errors for features which have only recently been added.


Output the internal parse tree after translating the source program into internal representation.  Mostly useful for debugging the GNU Fortran compiler itself. The output generated by this option might change between releases. This option may also generate internal compiler errors for features which have only recently been added. This option is deprecated; use -fdump-fortran-original instead.


Store the usual "temporary" intermediate files permanently; name them as auxiliary output files, as specified described under GCC -dumpbase and -dumpdir.

        gfortran -save-temps -c foo.F90

preprocesses input file foo.F90 to foo.fii, compiles to an intermediate foo.s, and then assembles to the (implied) output file foo.o, whereas:

        gfortran -save-temps -S foo.F

saves the preprocessor output in, and then compiles to the (implied) output file foo.s.

Options for code generation conventions

These machine-independent options control the interface conventions used in code generation.

Most of them have both positive and negative forms; the negative form of -ffoo would be -fno-foo.  In the table below, only one of the forms is listed---the one which is not the default.  You can figure out the other form by either removing no- or adding it.


Treat each program unit (except those marked as RECURSIVE) as if the SAVE statement were specified for every local variable and array referenced in it. Does not affect common blocks. (Some Fortran compilers provide this option under the name -static or -save.) The default, which is -fautomatic, uses the stack for local variables smaller than the value given by -fmax-stack-var-size. Use the option -frecursive to use no static memory.

Local variables or arrays having an explicit SAVE attribute are silently ignored unless the -pedantic option is added.


Generate code designed to be compatible with code generated by g77 and f2c.

The calling conventions used by g77 (originally implemented in f2c) require functions that return type default REAL to actually return the C type double, and functions that return type COMPLEX to return the values via an extra argument in the calling sequence that points to where to store the return value.  Under the default GNU calling conventions, such functions simply return their results as they would in GNU C---default REAL functions return the C type float, and COMPLEX functions return the GNU C type complex. Additionally, this option implies the -fsecond-underscore option, unless -fno-second-underscore is explicitly requested.

This does not affect the generation of code that interfaces with the libgfortran library.

Caution: It is not a good idea to mix Fortran code compiled with -ff2c with code compiled with the default -fno-f2c calling conventions as, calling COMPLEX or default REAL functions between program parts which were compiled with different calling conventions will break at execution time.

Caution: This will break code which passes intrinsic functions of type default REAL or COMPLEX as actual arguments, as the library implementations use the -fno-f2c calling conventions.


Do not transform names of entities specified in the Fortran source file by appending underscores to them.

With -funderscoring in effect, GNU Fortran appends one underscore to external names.  This is done to ensure compatibility with code produced by many UNIX Fortran compilers.

Caution: The default behavior of GNU Fortran is incompatible with f2c and g77, please use the -ff2c option if you want object files compiled with GNU Fortran to be compatible with object code created with these tools.

Use of -fno-underscoring is not recommended unless you are experimenting with issues such as integration of GNU Fortran into existing system environments (vis-à-vis existing libraries, tools, and so on).

For example, with -funderscoring, and assuming that j() and max_count() are external functions while my_var and lvar are local variables, a statement like

        I = J() + MAX_COUNT (MY_VAR, LVAR)

is implemented as something akin to:

        i = j_() + max_count_(&my_var, &lvar);

With -fno-underscoring, the same statement is implemented as:

        i = j() + max_count(&my_var, &lvar);

Use of -fno-underscoring allows direct specification of user-defined names while debugging and when interfacing GNU Fortran code with other languages.

Note that just because the names match does not mean that the interface implemented by GNU Fortran for an external name matches the interface implemented by some other language for that same name. That is, getting code produced by GNU Fortran to link to code produced by some other compiler using this or any other method can be only a small part of the overall solution---getting the code generated by both compilers to agree on issues other than naming can require significant effort, and, unlike naming disagreements, linkers normally cannot detect disagreements in these other areas.

Also, note that with -fno-underscoring, the lack of appended underscores introduces the very real possibility that a user-defined external name will conflict with a name in a system library, which could make finding unresolved-reference bugs quite difficult in some cases---they might occur at program run time, and show up only as buggy behavior at run time.

In future versions of GNU Fortran we hope to improve naming and linking issues so that debugging always involves using the names as they appear in the source, even if the names as seen by the linker are mangled to prevent accidental linking between procedures with incompatible interfaces.


By default, GNU Fortran appends an underscore to external names.  If this option is used GNU Fortran appends two underscores to names with underscores and one underscore to external names with no underscores.  GNU Fortran also appends two underscores to internal names with underscores to avoid naming collisions with external names.

This option has no effect if -fno-underscoring is in effect.  It is implied by the -ff2c option.

Otherwise, with this option, an external name such as MAX_COUNT is implemented as a reference to the link-time external symbol max_count__, instead of max_count_.  This is required for compatibility with g77 and f2c, and is implied by use of the -ff2c option.


Disable coarray support; using coarray declarations and image-control statements will produce a compile-time error. (Default)


Single-image mode, i.e. num_images() is always one.


Library-based coarray parallelization; a suitable GNU Fortran coarray library needs to be linked.


Enable the generation of run-time checks; the argument shall be a comma-delimited list of the following keywords.  Prefixing a check with no- disables it if it was activated by a previous specification.


Enable all run-time test of -fcheck.


Warns at run time when for passing an actual argument a temporary array had to be generated. The information generated by this warning is sometimes useful in optimization, in order to avoid such temporaries.

Note: The warning is only printed once per location.


Enable generation of run-time checks for invalid arguments to the bit manipulation intrinsics.


Enable generation of run-time checks for array subscripts and against the declared minimum and maximum values.  It also checks array indices for assumed and deferred shape arrays against the actual allocated bounds and ensures that all string lengths are equal for character array constructors without an explicit typespec.

Some checks require that -fcheck=bounds is set for the compilation of the main program.

Note: In the future this may also include other forms of checking, e.g., checking substring references.


Enable generation of run-time checks for invalid modification of loop iteration variables.


Enable generation of run-time checks for memory allocation. Note: This option does not affect explicit allocations using the ALLOCATE statement, which will be always checked.


Enable generation of run-time checks for pointers and allocatables.


Enable generation of run-time checks for recursively called subroutines and functions which are not marked as recursive. See also -frecursive. Note: This check does not work for OpenMP programs and is disabled if used together with -frecursive and -fopenmp.

Example: Assuming you have a file foo.f90, the command

          gfortran -fcheck=all,no-array-temps foo.f90

will compile the file with all checks enabled as specified above except warnings for generated array temporaries.


Deprecated alias for -fcheck=bounds.


Some C interfaces to Fortran codes violate the gfortran ABI by omitting the hidden character length arguments as described in
 This can lead to crashes because pushing arguments for tail calls can overflow the stack.

To provide a workaround for existing binary packages, this option disables tail call optimization for gfortran procedures with character arguments.  With -ftail-call-workaround=2 tail call optimization is disabled in all gfortran procedures with character arguments, with -ftail-call-workaround=1 or equivalent -ftail-call-workaround only in gfortran procedures with character arguments that call implicitly prototyped procedures.

Using this option can lead to problems including crashes due to insufficient stack space.

It is very strongly recommended to fix the code in question. The -fc-prototypes-external option can be used to generate prototypes which conform to gfortran's ABI, for inclusion in the source code.

Support for this option will likely be withdrawn in a future release of gfortran.

The negative form, -fno-tail-call-workaround or equivalent -ftail-call-workaround=0, can be used to disable this option.

Default is currently -ftail-call-workaround, this will change in future releases.


Deprecated alias for -fcheck=array-temps.


This option can be used to increase the upper limit permitted in  array constructors.  The code below requires this option to expand the array at compile time.

        program test
        implicit none
        integer j
        integer, parameter :: n = 100000
        integer, parameter :: i(n) = (/ (2*j, j = 1, n) /)
        print '(10(I0,1X))', i
        end program test

Caution:  This option can lead to long compile times and excessively large object files.

The default value for n is 65535.


This option specifies the size in bytes of the largest array that will be put on the stack; if the size is exceeded static memory is used (except in procedures marked as RECURSIVE). Use the option -frecursive to allow for recursive procedures which do not have a RECURSIVE attribute or for parallel programs. Use -fno-automatic to never use the stack.

This option currently only affects local arrays declared with constant bounds, and may not apply to all character variables. Future versions of GNU Fortran may improve this behavior.

The default value for n is 65536.


Adding this option will make the Fortran compiler put all arrays of unknown size and array temporaries onto stack memory.  If your program uses very large local arrays it is possible that you will have to extend your runtime limits for stack memory on some operating systems. This flag is enabled by default at optimization level -Ofast unless -fmax-stack-var-size is specified.


This option tells GNU Fortran to pack derived type members as closely as possible.  Code compiled with this option is likely to be incompatible with code compiled without this option, and may execute slower.


In some circumstances GNU Fortran may pass assumed shape array sections via a descriptor describing a noncontiguous area of memory. This option adds code to the function prologue to repack the data into a contiguous block at runtime.

This should result in faster accesses to the array.  However it can introduce significant overhead to the function call, especially  when the passed data is noncontiguous.


This option is provided for interoperability with C code that was compiled with the -fshort-enums option.  It will make GNU Fortran choose the smallest INTEGER kind a given enumerator set will fit in, and give all its enumerators this kind.


When passing an assumed-shape argument of a procedure as actual argument to an assumed-size or explicit size or as argument to a procedure that does not have an explicit interface, the argument may have to be packed, that is put into contiguous memory. An example is the call to foo in

          subroutine foo(a)
             real, dimension(*) :: a
          end subroutine foo
          subroutine bar(b)
             real, dimension(:) :: b
             call foo(b)
          end subroutine bar

When -finline-arg-packing is in effect, this packing will be performed by inline code. This allows for more optimization while increasing code size.

-finline-arg-packing is implied by any of the -O options except when optimizing for size via -Os.  If the code contains a very large number of argument that have to be packed, code size and also compilation time may become excessive.  If that is the case, it may be better to disable this option.  Instances of packing can be found by using -Warray-temporaries.


This option will make gfortran generate calls to BLAS functions for some matrix operations like MATMUL, instead of using our own algorithms, if the size of the matrices involved is larger than a given limit (see -fblas-matmul-limit).  This may be profitable if an optimized vendor BLAS library is available.  The BLAS library will have to be specified at link time.


Only significant when -fexternal-blas is in effect. Matrix multiplication of matrices with size larger than (or equal to) n will be performed by calls to BLAS functions, while others will be handled by gfortran internal algorithms. If the matrices involved are not square, the size comparison is performed using the geometric mean of the dimensions of the argument and result matrices.

The default value for n is 30.


When front-end optimization is active, some calls to the MATMUL intrinsic function will be inlined.  This may result in code size increase if the size of the matrix cannot be determined at compile time, as code for both cases is generated.  Setting -finline-matmul-limit=0 will disable inlining in all cases. Setting this option with a value of n will produce inline code for matrices with size up to n. If the matrices involved are not square, the size comparison is performed using the geometric mean of the dimensions of the argument and result matrices.

The default value for n is 30.  The -fblas-matmul-limit can be used to change this value.


Allow indirect recursion by forcing all local arrays to be allocated on the stack. This flag cannot be used together with -fmax-stack-var-size= or -fno-automatic.


The -finit-local-zero option instructs the compiler to initialize local INTEGER, REAL, and COMPLEX variables to zero, LOGICAL variables to false, and CHARACTER variables to a string of null bytes.  Finer-grained initialization options are provided by the -finit-integer=n, -finit-real=<zero|inf|-inf|nan|snan> (which also initializes the real and imaginary parts of local COMPLEX variables), -finit-logical=<true|false>, and -finit-character=n (where n is an ASCII character value) options.

With -finit-derived, components of derived type variables will be initialized according to these flags.  Components whose type is not covered by an explicit -finit-* flag will be treated as described above with -finit-local-zero.

These options do not initialize

  • objects with the POINTER attribute
  • allocatable arrays
  • variables that appear in an EQUIVALENCE statement.

(These limitations may be removed in future releases).

Note that the -finit-real=nan option initializes REAL and COMPLEX variables with a quiet NaN. For a signalling NaN use -finit-real=snan; note, however, that compile-time optimizations may convert them into quiet NaN and that trapping needs to be enabled (e.g. via -ffpe-trap).

The -finit-integer option will parse the value into an integer of type INTEGER(kind=C_LONG) on the host.  Said value is then assigned to the integer variables in the Fortran code, which might result in wraparound if the value is too large for the kind.

Finally, note that enabling any of the -finit-* options will silence warnings that would have been emitted by -Wuninitialized for the affected local variables.


By default, gfortran enforces proper alignment of all variables in a COMMON block by padding them as needed. On certain platforms this is mandatory, on others it increases performance. If a COMMON block is not declared with consistent data types everywhere, this padding can cause trouble, and -fno-align-commons can be used to disable automatic alignment. The same form of this option should be used for all files that share a COMMON block. To avoid potential alignment issues in COMMON blocks, it is recommended to order objects from largest to smallest.


By default the parentheses in expression are honored for all optimization levels such that the compiler does not do any re-association. Using -fno-protect-parens allows the compiler to reorder REAL and COMPLEX expressions to produce faster code. Note that for the re-association optimization -fno-signed-zeros and -fno-trapping-math need to be in effect. The parentheses protection is enabled by default, unless -Ofast is given.


An allocatable left-hand side of an intrinsic assignment is automatically (re)allocated if it is either unallocated or has a different shape. The option is enabled by default except when -std=f95 is given. See also -Wrealloc-lhs.


Functions with identical argument lists are eliminated within statements, regardless of whether these functions are marked PURE or not. For example, in

          a = f(b,c) + f(b,c)

there will only be a single call to f.  This option only works if -ffrontend-optimize is in effect.


This option performs front-end optimization, based on manipulating parts the Fortran parse tree.  Enabled by default by any -O option except -O0 and -Og.  Optimizations enabled by this option include:

*<inlining calls to MATMUL,>

*<elimination of identical function calls within expressions,>

*<removing unnecessary calls to TRIM in comparisons and assignments,>

*<replacing TRIM(a) with a(1:LEN_TRIM(a)) and>

*<short-circuiting of logical operators (.AND. and .OR.).>
It can be deselected by specifying -fno-frontend-optimize.


Attempt to interchange loops in the Fortran front end where profitable.  Enabled by default by any -O option. At the moment, this option only affects FORALL and DO CONCURRENT statements with several forall triplets.


The gfortran compiler currently does not make use of any environment variables to control its operation above and beyond those that affect the operation of gcc.


For instructions on reporting bugs, see <>.

See Also

gpl(7), gfdl(7), fsf-funding(7), cpp(1), gcov(1), gcc(1), as(1), ld(1), gdb(1), dbx(1) and the Info entries for gcc, cpp, gfortran, as, ld, binutils and gdb.


See the Info entry for gfortran for contributors to GCC and GNU Fortran.


2024-03-16 gcc-14 GNU