fakechroot [-s|--use-system-libs] [-l|--lib library] [-d|--elfloader ldso] [-e|--environment type] [-c|--config-dir directory] [-b|--bindir directory] [--] [command]
fakechroot runs a command in an environment where is additional possibility to use chroot(8) command without root privileges. This is useful for allowing users to create own chrooted environment with possibility to install another packages without need for root privileges.
fakechroot replaces some C library functions (chroot(2), open(2), etc.) by ones that simulate the effect of being called with root privileges.
These wrapper functions are provided as a shared library libfakechroot.so which is loaded through the
LD_PRELOAD mechanism of the dynamic loader. (See ld.so(8))
In fake chroot you can install i.e. Debian bootstrap with debootstrap(8) command. In such environment you can run i.e. apt-get(8) command to install another packages. You don't need a special privileges and you can run it on common user's account.
- -b|--bindir directory
Specify a directory which contains the replacement executables shipped with fakechroot. Those are script files with the extension
.fakechroot. By default they are distributed over the
sbindirectories in fakechroot's install prefix, but sometimes a fixed location at build time is not feasible.
- -c|--config-dir directory
Specify a directory which contains additional configuration for fakechroot. The default directory are
- -d ldso|--elfloader ldso
Specify an alternative dynamic linker. This dynamic linker will be invoked directly.
- -e|--environment type
Load additional configuration with environment. This configuration file is a shell script which is executed before calling command. The script can set additional environment variables, like i.e.:
The environment type is guessed based on command name with optional extension removed (e.g. running gettext.sh loads
gettextenvironment file). If command argument is fakeroot(1) this argument is omitted and next argument is taken as environment type.
The configuration file name is type.env and is searched at
$HOME/.fakechroot and /etc/fakechroot directories.
The default environment type is default and its configuration file name is
The special environment none means that no environment settings are loaded at all.
- -l library|--lib library
Specify an alternative wrapper library. The default is libfakechroot.so
Use system libraries before chroot's libraries. This might be a workaround if system dynamic linker cannot load libc.so from fake chroot.
Try this setting if you noticed following errors:
$ fakechroot /usr/sbin/chroot /tmp/sarge /bin/true /bin/true: relocation error: /srv/sarge/lib/tls/libc.so.6: symbol _dl _starting_up, version GLIBC_PRIVATE not defined in file ld-linux.so.2 with link time reference $ fakechroot /usr/sbin/chroot /tmp/centos4 /bin/true Segmentation fault
- [--] command
Any command you want to be run as fakechroot. Use '--' if in the command you have other options that may confuse fakechroot's option parsing.
An example session with fakechroot:
$ id uid=1000(dexter) gid=1000(dexter) groups=1000(dexter) $ fakechroot fakeroot debootstrap sid /tmp/sid I: Retrieving Release I: Retrieving Release.gpg I: Checking Release signature ... I: Base system installed successfully. $ fakechroot fakeroot chroot /tmp/sid apt-get install -q hello Reading package lists... Building dependency tree... Reading state information... The following NEW packages will be installed: hello 0 upgraded, 1 newly installed, 0 to remove and 0 not upgraded. Need to get 57.4 kB of archives. After this operation, 558 kB of additional disk space will be used. Get:1 http://ftp.us.debian.org/debian/ sid/main hello amd64 2.8-4 [57.4 kB] Fetched 57.4 kB in 0s (127 kB/s) Selecting previously unselected package hello. (Reading database ... 24594 files and directories currently installed.) Unpacking hello (from .../archives/hello_2.8-4_amd64.deb) ... Processing triggers for man-db ... Processing triggers for install-info ... Setting up hello (2.8-4) ... $ fakechroot chroot /tmp/sid hello Hello, world!
fakeroot(1) is a complementary tool which emulates root environment. fakeroot and fakechroot might wrap the same C library functions, i.e. mknod(2) function. It is important to start fake environment in proper order. fakeroot should be started inside fakechroot:
$ fakechroot fakeroot chroot /tmp/sid /bin/mknod /tmp/device c 1 2
fakechroot is a regular, non-setuid program. It does not enhance a user's privileges.
fakechroot should not be used as a tool for enhancing system security i.e. by separating (sandboxing) applications. It is very easy to escape from a fake chroot environment.
fakechroot should not be run with real root privileges. It might decrease the security of the system because the fakechroot provides own version of core functions with behavior depended on some environment variables.
The shared library containing the wrapper functions.
The value is true for fake chroot environment.
The root directory for unix sockets. The default value is the same as
FAKECHROOT_BASEand it can be set separately if the
FAKECHROOT_BASEis too long and the unix socket path could exceed the limit of 108 bytes.
The root directory of fake chroot environment.
A list of command substitutions. If a program tries to execute one of the commands given (path relative to the chroot, trailing dot is removed) then the substitute command runs instead (path to substitute command is not chrooted).
The substituted command inherits
FAKECHROOT_*variables but the original
FAKECHROOT_BASEvariable which is saved as
FAKECHROOT_BASE_ORIG. It means that substituted command runs outside fakechroot environment. Also original command name is saved as
/usr/bin/mkfifoand will make possible to install sysvinit binary package.
Give as many substitute commands as you want, separated by
It is suggested to substitute at least:
to make debootstrap(8) working correctly.
To prevent some looping, the command substitution is done only if
FAKECHROOT_CMD_ORIGvariable is not set currently.
The fakechroot library will dump some debugging info if this variable is set.
If this variable is set then
fakechroot versionstring is printed to standard output and the current process is terminated with status taken from this variable. It can be a method to check if fakechroot is preloaded correctly.
$ case "`FAKECHROOT_DETECT=1 /bin/echo`" in fakechroot*) echo LOADED;; esac
A path to another dynamic linker (i.e. /lib/ld-linux.so.2 for i386 architecture, /lib64/ld-linux-x86-64.so.2 for x86_64 architecture).
This dynamic linker will be invoked directly. The dynamic linker don't allow to change
argvbesides the file name of the executable file, so some application won't work correctly, i.e. busybox(1).
The list of directories which are excluded from being chrooted. The elements of list are separated with colon.
The /dev, /proc and /sys directories are excluded by default if this environment variable is not set.
This list has to contain at most 100 elements.
The list of extra directories in fake chroot environment that are added to
LD_LIBRARY_PATHvariable. The directories might be used by some important commands which use libraries placed in the runpath. In that case dynamic linker can't find correct directory in a fake chroot environment without the extra library path.
The default value is
/lib/systemd:/usr/lib/man-dbfor systemctl(1) and man(1) commands.
The version number of the current fakechroot library.
- LD_LIBRARY_PATH, LD_PRELOAD
Fakechroot is implemented by wrapping system calls. This is accomplished by setting
LD_PRELOAD=libfakechroot.so. If this library can't be found by dynamic linker, the /etc/ld.so.conf file or
LD_LIBRARY_PATHvariable have to be modified.
- /lib/ld-linux.so.2 and /lib64/ld-linux-x86-64.so.2 are always loaded from real environment. This path is hardcoded by linker for all binaries. You can set the
FAKECHROOT_ELFLOADERenvironment variable or use
- Every command executed within fakechroot needs to be linked to the same version of the dynamic linker from real environment. If the libraries in chroot are not compatible, try to use
You can provide symlinks to the outside. The symlink have to be created before chroot is called. It can be useful for accessing the real /proc and /dev directory. You can also set the
$ export FAKECHROOT_EXCLUDE_PATH=/tmp:/proc:/dev:/sys:/var/run:/home
- Statically linked binaries doesn't work, especially ldconfig(8), so you have to wrap this command with dummy version and set the proper
- ldd(1) also doesn't work. You have to use
alias ldd='LD_TRACE_LOADED_OBJECTS=1'or to use a wrapper instead. The wrapper is installed as ldd.fakechroot and can be used with
- The full screen applications hangs up if /dev/tty file is not a real device. Link /dev/tty file or whole /dev directory to the real one or remove it from fake chroot environment with
- lckpwdf(3) and ulckpwdf(3) are ignored so passwd(1) command should work
- Your real uid should exist in /etc/passwd. Create it with adduser --uid realuid realuser inside fake chroot environment.
- debuild(1) cleans environment. Use --preserve-env option to prevent this behavior.
- rpmbuild(8) uses own glob(3) implementation which breaks fakechroot so buildroot directory have to be the same inside and outside fakechroot.
fakeroot(1), debuild(1), debootstrap(8), rinse(8), http://fakechroot.alioth.debian.org/
If you find the bug or want to implement new features, please report it at <https://github.com/fakechroot/fakechroot/issues>
Copyright (c) 2003-2017, 2019 Piotr Roszatycki <email@example.com>
Copyright (c) 2007 Mark Eichin <firstname.lastname@example.org>
Copyright (c) 2006, 2007 Alexander Shishkin <email@example.com>
Copyright (c) 2006, 2007 Lionel Tricon <firstname.lastname@example.org>
fakechroot is distributed under the GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL 2.1 or greater).