dune - Man Page

graphical vrml97/x3d editor and animation tool

Synopsis

dune [ variantoptions ] [ stereoviewoptions ]  [ inputdeviceoptions [ axisoptions ] [ miscoptions ]  [ file.wrl file.x3dv file.x3d url ... ]

dune [ conversionoption ] filename

dune -illegal2vrml [ -prefix prefix ] protofile.wrl file.wrl ...

Description

dune / white_dune is a graphical editor for the Virtual Reality Modeling Language  (VRML97), ISO/IEC 14772-1:1997 and X3D.
Additionally it has support for the NurbsSurface Node described in VRML97  Amendment 1.
It can also load X3D files with XML encoding, if it has been compiled with the expat XML parser library.
It can also download files from the internet (to ~/Downloads (default), see "options->output setting"), if it has been compiled with the curl  library.
A filename of - means standart input.
Dune has some basic support for stereographic view usually with  shutterglases in OpenGL "quadbuffer" mode.
When used with the conversionoptions or the -illegal2vrml commandline argument, white_dune is a non graphical commandline program.
The conversionoptions are used to convert the VRML/X3DV/X3D file into  sourcecode or a other 3D graphics format. This options are used in the  commandline, but some options require a graphics context (e.g. in the  simplest case a usage within a xterm command), cause some of the conversion options  require the usage of OpenGL commands. To create a OpenGL context, there are  3 different ways.
First open a temporay graphics window, do the conversion and close  the graphics window and exit. This is currently used under M$Windows.
Second is to use Mesa off screen rendering (the program was compiled with the --with-osmesa configure option). With Mesa off screen rendering it is possible to use OpenGL commands in a pure commandline program.
Third is to use glx based off screen rendering under Linux/UNIX/MacOSX. In this case, the program do not open a graphics window, but requires  a working X11 display anyway. On a text console the Xvfb X11 server program can be used to get a working X11 display.
The -illegal2vrml option is used to repair VRML97 files with  illegal extensions.
See the illegal2vrml(1) manpage for more information.

Variantoptions

-4kids

start dune with a simplified GUI as simple 3D modeller for kids.

-x3dv

if no file is loaded, start dune with a new X3DV file.
Per default, dune is started with a new VRML97 file.
If a file is loaded, dune prints a X3DV to standart out.

-kambi

start dune with support for unportable extension nodes only usable with the kambi VRML gameengine.

-cover

start dune with support for unportable extension nodes only usable with the special immersive VRML97 viewer cover/covise.

-x3dom

start dune with support for unportable extensions only usable with the X3DOM viewer.

-4catt

start dune with a simplified GUI as a exporter/converter for users of the  CATT 8 sound simulation software.

-german

Use german menu, dialogs and errormessages

-italian

Use italian menu and dialogs, errormessages are still in english language

-french

Use french menu and dialogs, errormessages are still in english language

-portuguese

Use portuguese 4kids menu, only helpfull with -4kids option, otherwise all in english

-english

Use english menu, dialogs and errormessages. This is the default, it can be used to overwrite the setting of the LANG environment variable.

-skipchecks

Load a errorfree, complex world with much checks skipped.
Use with care if white_dune would take hours to load the world.

Conversionoptions

-vrml97

Convert file to VRML97 ISO/IEC 14772-1:1997, write it to standart output and exit.

-vrml97levelx3dv

Convert file to VRML97 ISO/IEC 14772-1:1997 compatible parts of  X3D classic VRML encoding ISO/IEC ISO/IEC 19776-2:2005, write  it to standart output and exit.

-x3d

Convert file to XML encoded X3D, write it to standard output and exit.

-X3DOM

Convert file to X3DOM html, write it to standard output and exit.

-download

Download file from the internet, write filenames to standard error and exit.
This makes sense when using a VRML/X3D browser or the -readfromdownloads option later.

-kanim filenamepattern

Convert file to the kanim fileformat and write it to standard output.
The kanim fileformat is a XML file with references to different VRML  files. The VRML files are generated too, their name is generated based on filenamepattern: The filenamepattern is shortend from the fileextension and then extended with a underscore, a increasing number and the .wrl extension.
All VRML files describe the same VRML scene with same the nodes,  but some numeric fields are animated.
This type of file is used by the open source VRML based Kambi gameengine. It makes no sense to export a kanim file, if the exported VRML file do not  contain timesensor/interpolator based animation.

-rib

Convert file to the RIB format (Renderman Image Bytestream), write it to  standart output and exit. This option uses OpenGL commands and can not be used  in a commandline only environment.
The RIB file format is the input file format of movie renderers like renderman or aqsis.
The RIB exporter do not support several features of VRML/X3D  (e.g. TextureTransform).

-files integer

Only useful with the -rib option.
Instead of writing the whole animation into the -o option file, create integer files with parts of the animation. This is usefull to run the renderman renderer (e.g. aqsis) parallel.
A example:
$ dune -o RibExport.rib -files 4 -rib Untitled.wrl
$ for i in RibExport*.rib ; do (aqsis $i &); done

-ac3d

Convert file to the AC3D format (Version AC3Db), write it to standart output  and exit. This option uses OpenGL commands and can not be used in a  commandline only environment.
The AC3D file format is the input/output file format of the 3D modeller ac3d.
The ac3d 3d modeller do not support several features of VRML/X3D  (e.g. the ac3d 3d modeller do not support animation or interaction). Therefore the AC3D file format can not keep the complete information of a  VRML/X3D file in general.

-catt8geo outputdir_with_material_geo

Convert file to the catt geo format  (Version 8), write it to several .geo formats to the directory outputdir_with_material_geo and exit.
The catt geo file format is the input geometry file format of the  catt acustic simulation program.
The master.geo file in this directory outputdir_with_material_geo  will hold include commands for the other produced .geo files.
In the directory, a file material.geo with the needed ABS commands must exist before conversion. The material names for the ABS names are generated from the DEF names of the  VRML nodes.
If the material.geo file do not exist in the  outputdir_with_material_geo directory, white_dune fails with a errormessage.
Despite the catt programm can export VRML97 files, it do not support several  features of VRML/X3D.
Therefore the catt geo file format can not keep the information of a  VRML/X3D file in general.
This option uses OpenGL commands and can not be used in a commandline only  environment.

-ldraw

Convert file to the major part of the ldraw fileformat and write it to standard output.
The header of the ldraw file is not generated. The header is a important  part of a ldraw file and should have been written to standard output earlier (typically this is done from a batch script).
The ldraw fileformat is a ASCII fileformat which is used to exchange 3D data  between several open source plastic brick description programs. A example  for such a program is LeoCAD.

-prefix prefix

The -prefix option in conjunction with conversion is only used for the following options to create source code. It can be used to define a leading prefix for the name of the data structures in the source code output.
For example, the source code creates data types named "Node", "Scenegraph" and "Callback". To avoid problems with other libraries, adding options like for example "-prefix X3d" would change the names to "X3dNode", "X3dSceneGraph" and "X3dCallback".

-c

Converts file to a C header/source file, write it to standard output and exit.
See section C/C++/Java Source Export for more information.

-3c

This option is similar to the -c option, but surfaces are first  triangulated and then exported as TriangleSet nodes.
This option uses OpenGL commands and can not be used in a commandline only  environment.

-c++

Converts file to a C++ header/source file, write it to standard output and  exit.
See section C/C++/Java Source Export for more information.

-3c++

This option is similar to the -c++ option, but surfaces are first  triangulated and then exported as TriangleSet nodes.
This option uses OpenGL commands and can not be used in a commandline only  environment.

-java

Converts file to a java source file, write it to standard output and exit.
See section C/C++/Java Source Export for more information.

-3java

This option is similar to the -java option, but surfaces are first  triangulated and then exported as TriangleSet nodes.
This option uses OpenGL commands and can not be used in a commandline only  environment.

-manyclasses

Deprecated (now default)
Only valid after the -java, -3java or -wonderland options.
This option is a brute force attempt to fight against the "too much constants" problem in java. It may be impossible to compile the output of a normal  java based source code export, cause the current format of java class files  are limited to 64K so called "constants". Not only real constants like 1, 2  or 3 are counted, but also things like member variable definitions in  classes etc.
With the -manyclasses option, all data is distributed into many seperated classes.
The -manyclasses option should help, if you run into the  "too much constants" problem. In case of a large number of DEF commands in the vrml/x3dv file, you can still run into "too much constants" problem, cause each DEF commands leads to extra member variable in the main scenegraph class. In this case, you should reduce the number of DEF commands with the menupoint actions ... rest of scenegraph branch ... remove ... DEF name
Beside the need to increase the memory limits of the javac compiler (-Xms/-Xmx) options, you may also need to increase the PermSize memory limits (-XX:PermSize=/-XX:MaxPermSize=) of the java interpreter.

-o outputfile

Writes the converted file to outputfile.
This is important if the converted X3D/VRML file is not in the same directory as the orignal file (cause of relative paths in URLs like in ImageTexture or EXTERNPROTOs).
Note that -o outputfile must be used before the inputfile  (filename).

Stereoviewoptions

-nostereo

force non stereoview mode on Linux/UNIX (e.g. if you do not own shutterglases)

-stereo

force stereoview mode.
Stereo is only supported for hardware/software  combinations, that allow quadbuffer stereo ("stereo in a window"),  NOT splitscreen stereo (eg. "OpenGlVR").
Examples for hardware/software combinations with support for  quadbuffer stereo are graphicscards with support for  shutterglasses or "stereo cloneview" to connect beamers  of a onewall.

-anaglyph glassestype

force expermential stereoview mode for use with colored anaglyph glasses.
glassestype can be red_green, green_red, red_blue or blue_red.
This option uses the OpenGL accumulation buffer. This is not hardware-supported  by a lot of graphics cards/graphics drivers and can result in miserable  performance.

-eyedist eyedistinmeter

Distance between the two eyes of the viewer.
Default eyedistinmeter is 0.06, it can be negative to swap eyes  (no need to reconfigure your hardware if eye swapping problems occure).

-screendist screendistinmeter

Distance between the eyes of the viewer and the mid of the monitor screen.
Default screendistinmeter is 0.8.

-fieldofview fieldofviewindegree

Overwrite Field of View field in VRML viewpoints and set to  fieldofviewindegree in degree.
Good stereoviewing may want need to ignore the fieldOfView field  of viewpoints. The fieldOfView of the human eye is about 18 degrees, the VRML default is 45 degrees.

Inputdeviceoptions

The following options are only valid, if dune was compiled with matching inputdevice driver support (e.g. there is not support for a Linux joystick  under IRIX).

-joystick joystickdevice

Only valid under Linux or M$Windows.
Under Linux, joystickdevice is the device of a Linux joystick  (usually something like /dev/input/js0 or /dev/js0).
Under M$Windows, the joystickdevice is a number. Depending from the M$Windows version, this number is either 0, 1 or a number from 0 to 15.

-SDLjoystick joystickdevice

Currently only valid under MacOSX. The joystickdevice is a number (e.g. 0, 1, 2, ...).

-spaceball spaceballdevice

spaceballdevice is the serial device connected to the spaceball (usually something like /dev/ttyd2 or /dev/ttyS0).
Only valid if binary was compiled with libsball support.

-nxtdials usbdevice

This option support a dials like inputdevice made of mindstorms nxt motors. Just attach a wheel or gear to each of 3 motors, connect them to the brick and connect the brick to the computer via USB.
This option is only valid, if white_dune was compiled with support of the libusb library e.g. available under Linux.
usbdevice is the number of the mindstorms nxt brick connected via USB (0 for the first nxt brick, 1 for the second nxt brick, etc).
The -nxtdials option automatically set the wheel axisoption.

-xinput xinputname

xinputname is the devicename supported by the Xinput Protocol (usually something like magellan or dialbox).
Valid on most Unix/X11 implementations.

-xinputlist

Print a list of Xinput devicenames that can be possibly used as  xinputname for the -xinput option and exit.
Valid on most Unix/X11 implementations.

-xinputlistlong

Print a list of Xinput devicenames with axis information and exit.
Valid on most Unix/X11 implementations.

-aflock aflockdevice  [ aflockoptions ]  -tracker birdaddr -wand birdaddr

aflockdevice is the serial device connected to the  Ascension Flock of Birds master transmitter  (usually something like /dev/ttyd2 or /dev/ttyS0).
Dune assumes the following configuration:
Multiple FOBs with single RS232 Interface to Host Computer (see "The flock of Birds, Installation and Operation Guide,  Standalone and Multiple Transmitter/Multiple Sensors Configurations",  Page 3 (chapter "Introduction"), Figure 2).
birdaddr is the adress of the Bird Unit of the magnetic head tracker (-tracker) or "3D Mouse" (-wand) in the Fast Bird Bus  (FBB adress) as configured with the dipswitches on the Bird Unit.
This program need to have the Flock of Birds configured in the Normal  Address Mode only (see Page 12, Figure 4 of the manual decribed above).

-headnavigation

Use current transformmode (including rotations) when using a headtracker.
Default without -headnavigation is using only the translation mode. This default gives you a very natural reaction, when your head moves,  the virtual world moves, but if your head only rotates, the virtual world  stand still. With the headnavigation option, the virtual world reacts to  head rotations, depending of the current transform mode. Be carefull when  you use this feature while talking to a audience. Talking cause small and  fast head rotations and will cause small and fast rotations of the virtual  world. Your audience may get a impression like in a earthquake and is more in danger to get motion sickness.

-sendalways

Tell dune that the device sends (almost) always values. This values will then not be interpreted automatically as transform commands.
Automatically used for Ascension Flock of Birds device (-aflock).

-dontcarefocus

Inputdevice actions dont care about the window focus.
This can be useful in situations, when you only work with one dune window, e.g. when using a onewall.

Axisoptions

-x|-y|-z|-xrot|-yrot|-zrot=[-][integer_axisnumber]

[,[factor][,[accel][,[wheel][,ignore]]]]

-all|-allxyz|-allrot=[factor][,[accel][,[wheel][,ignore]]]

-none=integer_axisnumber

-axes=max_number_axes

Axislegend

-

used to swap sign of value from axis

integer_axisnumber

Integer with the number of the axis, that should be used for the  x y z xrot yrot zrot directions.
This number may not be greater than the number of axes of the  inputdevice.
The integer_axisnumber in the none option is used to disable this axis.

factor

Float with a multiplicator for the axes
The factors of the all, allrot and allxyz options are independend of the  factors of the single axes.

accel

Float with a expotential accelerator for the axes

wheel

The string "wheel" means this axis of the inputdevice will not deliver zero  if released

ignore

Float with the value (relative to the maximal value from the device) which will be ignored (insensitivity)

max_number_axes

Number of used axes, one of (2,3,4,5).
This must be equal or less to the physical available  axes of a device. Main usage of this option is to disable  bad designed or mechanical defect axes e.g. when you wish,  this axis on a joystick would not exist

Aflockoptions

This options are only valid for the Ascension flock of birds magnetic tracking system.

-baud baudrate

Baudrate of the serial line communicating with the transmitter.
According to the flock of bird manual, the following baudrates are valid for serial line communication: 2400, 4800, 9600, 19200, 38400, 57600 and 115200.
Default: 38400

-numbirds numberbirds

Number of "data delivering" birds attached to the transmitter (e.g. not  counting the transmitter itself, if it is a Extended Range Controller (ERC)).
Default: 2 (tracker and wand).

-master birdaddr

Adress of the master transmitter in the Fast Bird Bus (FBB adress) as  configured with the dipswitches on the transmitter unit.
Default: 1

-masterIsErc

Used to differ between configurations, where the master is a ERC  (Extended Range Controller) or not. If the master is not a ERC, the FBB adress is the same as the FBB adress of the tracker or the wand.
Default: not set

-hemisphere FRONT_HEM|AFT_HEM|UPPER_HEM|LOWER_HEM|LEFT_HEM|RIGHT_HEM

Hemisphere used. Sit on the antenna block (with the legs near  on the side of the text) to see, what is left or right 8-)
Default: RIGHT_HEM

-sync 0|1

Synchronise (1) or not (0) data output to a CRT (Monitor) or  your host computer.
Synchronisation is used to elimiate magnetic effects of a Monitor  using the CRT sync cable.
Default: 0

-block 0|1

Set (1) or do not set (0) the FNDELAY flag to the filedescriptor of the serial port.
Default: 0

-filter AC_NARROW | AC_WIDE | DC_FILTER

Enable different filters. Read the Flock of Birds manuals for more  information.
This option can be repeated to use multiple filters.
Default: no filter set, using filter set by Flock autoconfiguration.

-suddenchangelock 0|1

Allow (0) or disallow (1) setting of messured position and orientation  when a sudden large messurement occure.
Default: 1

-calfile calibrationfile

Use a VR Juggler style file to calibrate position messurement.

-ignoresize delta

Ignore position jumps from flock bigger than delta. This is much like suddenchangelock, but pure software based.
Default: 0

Miscoptions

-tessellation integer

Set the default tessellation of NURBS and superformula based parametric shapes to integer.
The meaning of tessellation decide how many edges are generated in one  direction.
A low default tessellation result in faster rendering of related shapes with  tessellation set to 0 inside the white_dune application, but can give a  reduced view, so details of a shape may be hidden.
If no -tessellation option is used, the default tessellation is 32.

-indirect

Forces indirect OpenGL rendering, even when 3D hardware rendering  accelleration is available. In case of possible 3D hardware rendering  accelleration this option can drastically slow down the program.
This option is most usefull on machines with problematic graphic drivers or halfbaken 3D desktop features like compiz.

-nogllist

Forces OpenGL to render without glList commands.
The use of glList commands can increase the rendering speed of static objects (without morphing) dramatically.
This option is only usefull on machines with errors in glList commands or insufficent memory on the graphics card, so the use of glList commands  would uselessly fail.

-hidestandardtoolbar

Hide the standard toolbar. This option is usefull on machines with small displays.

-uninstall

Output information (if available) on the commandline, how the white_dune  application can be uninstalled and exit.
Under Micro$oft Windows it additionally clears all information activly set  by white_dune (under HKEY_CURRENT_USER) in the Windows registry.

-checkSimpleCyclicSceneGraph

A cyclic scenegraph is caused by a node, which contains itself (in form of a USE command of itself) in its scenegraph branch.
Cyclic scenegraphs are illegal in VRML97/X3D, tools reading such a file may loop infinitely or eat up all the memory and then crash. Nevertheless some tools (or people) tend to generate such cyclic scenegraphs.  White_dune is able to detect one depth cyclic scenegraphs, but the detection can result in a performance problem when loading huge VRML97/X3D files. Therefore white_dune do not check for cyclic scenegraphs by default. If white_dune loops infinitely or crashes after a long time while loading a VRML/X3D file, a cyclic scenegraph shoud be supposed and this option should be used.

-scriptHeaderC header

It is possible to use Script nodes in C source export. The url field in Script nodes ships code from computer languages. If one string points to a file (e.g. a java class file), this file is executed to process events. Beside that, it is also possible to inline source code below a header. The default header for inlined code for the C source export is "c:". The VRML/X3D standard do not restrict the usage of various programming  languages in the Script node.
This option changes this header to avoid name clashes with other tools using the default header in a different context.

-scriptHeaderC++ header

It is possible to use Script nodes in C++ source export. The url field in Script nodes ships code from computer languages. If one string points to a file (e.g. a java class file), this file is executed to process events. Beside that, it is also possible to inline source code below a header. The default header for inlined code for the C++ source export is "c++:". The VRML/X3D standard do not restrict the usage of various programming  languages in the Script node.
This option changes this header to avoid name clashes with other tools using the default header in a different context.

-scriptHeaderJava header

It is possible to use Script nodes in java source export. The url field in Script nodes ships code from computer languages. If one string points to a file (e.g. a java class file), this file is executed to process events. Beside that, it is also possible to inline source code below a header. The default header for inlined code for the java source export is "java:". The VRML/X3D standard do not restrict the usage of various programming  languages in the Script node.
This option changes this header to avoid name clashes with other tools using the default header in a different context.

-psn_???

Only valid under MacOSX.
Options starting with the string "-psn_" are generated by the Aqua  desktop under on some versions of MacOSX and are silently ignored.

-exitPid pid

Only valid under MacOSX.
Needed for the Aqua desktop of MacOSX to kill the whitedune starter program on exit.

-fn font

Only valid under Linux/UNIX/MacOSX.
Set the unix font. Check for valid fonts with the xlsfonts(1) command.

-demomode timeout

This options is intended for running the program as eyecatcher eg. on a fair.
The animation of a scene (e.g. Viewpoint animation) is started.
In case of input from the mouse (mouseclick), keyboard or a 3D inputdevice,  the animation is stopped an the user can navigate through the 3D world.
timeout seconds after the last input, the animation is starting again.

-fullscreen

Starts dune in full screen mode

-filedialogdir directory

Change to a specific directory before opening a filedialog.

-proto category protofile

Adds the VRML PROTO in the file protofile to the list of available PROTOs in the create => proto menu in the category submenu and exit.

-renderslower

This option uses a slower render mode.

-readfromdownloads

This option let white_dune read from the download directory instead of  a internet URL,
Usefull when working offline after working online.

--version

Print out version information and exit.

--copyrightdetails

Print out detailed copyright informations and exit.

Mouse/Keys

In the 3D view, dune support the following mouse / keyboard commands:

Mouse Button 1 click:

Select objects/3D handlers (e.g. arrows or white boxes) under the cursor  (or under the top of 3D cursor in stereoview)

Mouse Button 2 click:

Additionly select white box 3D handlers under the cursor  (or under the top of 3D cursor in stereoview)

Mouse Button 1 drag:

Drag objects/3D handles around

Mouse Button 3 drag:

Select multiple 3D handles

CTRL-Mouse Button 1 drag:

Virtual trackball navigation

SHIFT-Mouse Button 1 drag:

Forward/backward navigation

CTRL+SHIFT-Mouse Button 1 drag:

up/down/left/right navigation

ALT-Mouse Button 1 drag: (SGI style)

Virtual trackball navigation

ALT-Mouse Button 2 drag: (SGI style)

up/down/left/right navigation

ALT-Mouse Button 1+2 drag: (SGI style)

forward/backward navigation

Navigation icon pressed-Mouse Button 1 drag:

Virtual trackball navigation

Navigation icon pressed-Mouse Button 2 drag:

forward/backward navigation

Navigation icon-Mouse Button 1+2 drag:

up/down/left/right navigation

In the route view, dune support the following mouse / keyboard commands:
Mouse Button 1 click to event socket of a node and drag to a matching event

socket:
create a ROUTE connection

Mouse Button 1 click to nothing and drag:

cut a ROUTE connection

Mouse Button 1 click to a node and drag:

move node in the route view

Mouse Button 1 click to a node, hold Mouse Button1, pressing Page Up/Down key

move node in the route view by one page (works only on correct motif/lesstif implementations)

Information about other keyboard usage can be found in the toolbar.

Tips how to use dune can be found in the docs directory of dune

C/C++/Java Source Export

The export to source code is a mainly a export of the information (numbers  and strings) of the VRML/X3D scenegraph tree.
White_dune do not export something like C source with OpenGL commands. The exported code is independend of any rendering engine, but should be usable with any 3D API.
Additional code is needed to render the scenegraph with a 3D API. Currently white_dune comes with only two sets of such additinal code for the  Java Monkey Engine (JME) and C/C++ OpenGL.  This code can be used as a model for writing code for additional renderengines.
The information of the scenegraph is written into a class/struct with a name concatinated from the string of the prefix argument (default "X3d") and the string "SceneGraph". The scenegraph class/struct is filled with references to the different VRML/X3D commands ("nodes"). The name of the type of such a node is concatinated from the string of the prefix  argument (default "X3d") and "Node". Each node type contains the data of the VRML/X3D node in variables named in the same way as the VRML/X3D fields.
The following table shows the mapping from the VRML/X3D field type to the  C, C++ and java datatypes:

VRML/X3D datatypeC datatypeC++ datatypejava datatype
SFBoolshortboolboolean
SFInt32intintint
SFImageint*int*int[]
SFFloatfloatfloatfloat
SFVec2ffloat[2]float[2]float[2]
SFVec3ffloat[3]float[3]float[3]
SFVec4ffloat[4]float[4]float[4]
SFRotationfloat[4]float[4]float[4]
SFMatrix3ffloat[9]float[9]float[9]
SFMatrix4ffloat[16]float[16]float[16]
SFColorfloat[3]float[3]float[3]
SFColorRGBAfloat[4]float[4]float[4]
SFDoubledoubledoubledouble
SFVec3ddouble[3]double[3]double[3]
SFTimedoubledoubledouble
SFStringconst char*const char*String
SFNode (***)X3dNode*X3dNode*X3dNode
MFBoolshort*bool*boolean[]
MFInt32int*int*int[]
MFFloatfloat*float*float[]
MFVec2ffloat*float*float[]
MFVec3ffloat*float*float[]
MFVec4ffloat*float*float[]
MFRotationfloat*float*float[]
MFMatrix3ffloat*float*float[]
MFMatrix4ffloat*float*float[]
MFColorfloat*float*float[]
MFColorRGBAfloat*float*float[]
MFDoubledouble*double*double[]
MFVec3ddouble*double*double[]
MFTimedouble*double*double[]
MFStringconst char**const char**String[]
MFNode (***)X3dNode**X3dNode**X3dNode[]

(***) The "X3d" part of the name is the default, it can be replaced by the  string of the prefix argument.
For any MF* type field (and a SFImage type field) the number of int, float  etc. values in the array is stored in a variable of the X3dNode  struct/class composed from "m_", the name of the field and "_length" in  case of a C/C++ export. Java do not need such a variable, cause the length of a array is always  available as the .length component of the array.

The scenegraph is a tree of nodes. The root of the scenegraph is (similar to the white_dune internals) a VRML/X3D Group node named "root".
In a Group node, the contained nodes are attached via a field named  "children" of type MFNode.
For example imagine the following VRML file:

#VRML V2.0 utf8

Group
  {
  children
    [
    Group
      {
      }
    Group
      {
      }
    DEF NAME_OF_FOGNODE Fog
      {
      color 1 0.50000000 1
      }
    ]
  }

If no prefix argument is used, the first node in a  VRML/X3D file is represended in the exported C source as  "root->children[0]" in the "X3dSceneGraph" struct.
If the first node in the VRML/X3D file is also a Group node and contain three other nodes, the third of this nodes is represended as  "root->children[0]->children[2]" in the "X3dSceneGraph" struct.
If the third of this nodes is a Fog node, the "color" field of the Fog node is represended in the exported C source as  "root->children[0]->children[2]->color" in the "X3dSceneGraph" struct.
The type of the "color" field of the Fog node is SFColor. The SFColor type is represented as a array of 3 floating point values in the C source, used to store the red, green and blue part of the color.
So the green part of the fog color is represended in the exported C source as "root->children[0]->children[2]->color[1]" in the "X3dSceneGraph" struct.
A C++ export would also use "root->children[0]->children[2]->color[1]" in the  "X3dSceneGraph" class.
A java export would similarly use "root.children[0].children[2].color[1]" in the "X3dSceneGraph" class.

There is a second way to access the fields of the Fog node.
In VRML/X3D it is possible to name nodes with a "DEF" command. The string behind the DEF command ("NAME_OF_FOGNODE" in the example) also occures in the in the "X3dSceneGraph" struct and can be directly used to  access the matching VRML/X3D data.
So the green part of the fog color is represended in the exported C source as "NAME_OF_FOGNODE->color[1]" in the "X3dSceneGraph" struct.
A C++ export would also use "NAME_OF_FOGNODE->color[1]" in the  "X3dSceneGraph" class.
A java export would use similarly "NAME_OF_FOGNODE.color[1]" in the  "X3dSceneGraph" class.
A problem can occure, if the string behind the DEF command is a reserved keyword in the target language. For example, the 3D modeller wings3d often uses the DEF name "default" when exporting VRML97 files.
In this case, the DEF name will be renamed (e.g. to "default1") and a warning  would be written to standard error during the export.

Beside the access of node data directly, there are also 2 sets of callbacks to handle the data of a whole scenegraph (or a branch of it):  a set of callbacks to render the content of the scenegraph branch  ("*RenderCallback") and a additional set of callbacks for other tasks ("*DoWithDataCallback").
There are also callbacks to replace the functions, which per default alltogether traverse the Scenegraph  ("*TreeRenderCallback" and "*TreeDoWithDataCallback").
The callback mechanism and the scenegraph initialization differs from  programming language to programming language.

C:
The scenegraph (default argument "X3d" for prefix) can be declarated with
  struct X3dSceneGraph sceneGraph;
and initialized with
  X3dSceneGraphInit(&sceneGraph);
A callback function for any X3D node type (like Fog, Text, IndexedFaceSet etc.) has the declaration
  void mycallbackFunction(X3dNode *self, void *data)
To access the fields of the X3D node, you usually cast the X3dNode pointer to a pointer to the type build from the string of the prefix argument  (default "X3d") and the name of the X3D node type you access with this  callback (e.g. X3dFog, X3dText, X3dIndexedFaceSet etc.).
  X3dFog *node = (X3dFog *)self;
  X3dText *node = (X3dText *)self;
  X3dIndexedFaceSet *node = (X3dIndexedFaceSet *)self;
  etc.
With this variable "node" the fields the X3D node can be accessed.
To install the callback, simply assign you function pointer to  "callbackFunction" to a variable  build from the string of the  prefix argument (default "X3d"), the the name of the X3D node and the string "RenderCallback" or "DoWithDataCallback". E.g.
  X3dFogRenderCallback = mycallbackFunction;
  X3dTextDoWithDataCallback = mycallbackFunction;
  X3dIndexedFaceSetRenderCallback = mycallbackFunction;
To run the Render or DoWithData functions with the scenegraph tree, just use
  X3dGroupTreeDoWithData(&sceneGraph.root, NULL);
Instead of using NULL, other data can be passed to the "data" argument of the callback functions.

C++:
The callback mechanism is very similar to the C mechanism.
The main difference is the storage of the callback functions. While the callbackfunctions in C are stored in global space, the C++ callbackfunctions are stored in the static part of the matching node type.
Instead of using
  X3dFogRenderCallback = mycallbackFunction; // C
a C++ program would use
  X3dFog::renderCallback = mycallbackFunction; // C++
In C++ there is no need to call a initialization function for "sceneGraph".  A constructor is called when the
  X3dSceneGraph sceneGraph;
declaration is used.
To run the Render or DoWithData functions with the scenegraph  tree "sceneGraph.render(NULL);" or "sceneGraph.doWithData(NULL);" is used.
NULL can be replaced by other data, that will be passed to the "data" argument  of the callback function.

java:
The java callback mechanism is a bit different, it is based on inheritance.
The callback function is part of a class, that extends a matching  class:
  class  MyCallbackClass extends X3dFogRenderCallback {
     public void render(X3dNode node) {
The new class is used in the following example:
  MyCallbackClass myCallback = new MyCallbackClass();
  X3dSceneGraph sceneGraph = new X3dSceneGraph();
  X3dText.setX3dTextRenderCallback(myCallback);
  sceneGraph.render();

With the the -manyclasses option, the last line changes to  "X3dSceneGraph.render();". The access to a node with a DEF command in the x3dv/vrml file changes also to a static variable in a similar way.

Finally there are additional callbacks ("*ProcessEventCallback") to process events distributed by VRML/X3D ROUTE commands.
A example: a usual animation of a moving Sphere, is driven by a event from a TimeSensor node. There is a ROUTE command to send the event into a  PositionInterpolator node, which calculate the matching translation of the Sphere. There is also a ROUTE command to send the translation event to a Transform node.
In the source code export, the inputOnly/outputOnly events are stored as usual variables. The functions used for *ProcessEventCallbacks should read the inputOnly event variables and write the outputOnly event  variables.
Similar to the sceneGraph. render() function, there is a  sceneGraph. X3dProcessEvent() function.
During the source code export, white_dune searches for the node (and similar nodes) with output events, but no input event.
The exported code calls  X3dProcessEvent() with this first node of a ROUTE. This should generate  data in the outputOnly event variables of this first node of a ROUTE.
By following the ROUTE, the exported code copies the data from the  outputOnly event variable of the first node to the inputOnly event variable of the second node of a ROUTE.  
The exported code calls X3dProcessEvents() with the second node of a ROUTE  to create data in the outputOnly event variable of the second node.
By following the ROUTE, the exported code copies the data from the outputOnly event variable of the second node to the inputOnly event variable of the third node of a ROUTE.
And so on.
At the end of the ROUTE chain, X3dProcessEvent() should process the  inputOnly event varibles of the last node in the ROUTE chain.
In a simple example, the following X3DV file is exported:

#X3D V3.0 utf8
PROFILE Interchange

DEF Transform1 Transform {
  children
    Shape {
      appearance Appearance {
        material Material {
        }
      }
      geometry Box {
      }
    }
}

DEF TimeSensor1 TimeSensor {
  cycleInterval 5
  loop TRUE
}

DEF PositionInterpolator1 PositionInterpolator {
  key [
    0
    1
  ]
  keyValue [
    0 0 0
    1 0 0
  ]
}

ROUTE TimeSensor1.fraction_changed TO PositionInterpolator1.set_fraction
ROUTE PositionInterpolator1.value_changed TO Transform1.set_translation

The most simple code, that could be used to implement this (exactly this) PositionInterpolator would be in C (with prefix "X3d"):

int PositionInterpolatorCallback(X3dNode *node, const char *eventName,
                                 void* extraData)
{
   struct X3dPositionInterpolator *data = (struct X3dPositionInterpolator*)node;
   data->value_changed[0] = data->set_fraction;
   data->value_changed[0] = 0;
   data->value_changed[0] = 0;
   return 1;
}

Just like the Render callback functions, the callback is used with
X3dPositionInterpolatorProcessEventCallback = PositionInterpolatorCallback;
The matching code in C++ is rather similar

bool PositionInterpolatorCallback(X3dNode *node, const char *eventName,
                                  void* extraData)
{
   X3dPositionInterpolator *data = (X3dPositionInterpolator*)node;
   data->value_changed[0] = data->set_fraction;
   data->value_changed[0] = 0;
   data->value_changed[0] = 0;
   return true;
}

The callback is used with
X3dPositionInterpolator::processEventCallback = PositionInterpolatorCallback;
The matching code in java uses inheritance

class PositionInterpolatorCallback extends X3dPositionInterpolatorProcessEventCallback {
    public boolean processEvent(X3dNode node, String eventName) {
        X3dPositionInterpolator data = (X3dPositionInterpolator)node;
        data->value_changed[0] = data->set_fraction;
        data->value_changed[0] = 0;
        data->value_changed[0] = 0;
        return true;
    }
}

The callback is used with

PositionInterpolatorCallback callback = new PositionInterpolatorCallback();
X3dPositionInterpolator.setX3dPositionInterpolatorProcessEventCallback(callback);

The return value of the ProcessEventCallbacks (1/0 for C, true/false for  C++/java) tells the event distributing system (VRML/X3D ROUTE commands) if there is a generated event that needs to be distributed to the next VRML/X3D node or not.

It is possible to use a VRML/X3D Script node to process data in C, C++ or java.
Similar to inlined javascript/ecmascript code, the "url" field of a Script  node contains strings with a header.
The syntax of the code in C/C++/java is very similar to the code in a ProcessEvent callback. The only difference is the node name  (PositionInterpolator in the callbacks above). Each Script node in a  VRML/X3D file has another set of events and fields. A Script node is useless without a DEF name, therefore the node name is replaced by the concatenation of the String "Script_" and the DEF name of the Script node.

If no -scriptHeaderC/-scriptHeaderC++/-scriptHeaderJava option is used, the Script node that replaces the PositionInterpolator in the examples above would be:

DEF Script1 Script {
  eventIn SFFloat float1_in
  eventOut SFVec3f vec3f1_out
  url [
    "javascript:
    // eventOut SFVec3f vec3f1_out //
    function float1_in(value) {
       // value  SFFloat
       vec3f1_out = new SFVec3f(value, 0, 0);
    }
    "

    "c:
    struct X3dScript_Script1 *self = node;
    self->vec3f1_out[0] = self->float1_in;
    self->vec3f1_out[1] = 0;
    self->vec3f1_out[2] = 0;
    "

    "c++:
    X3dScript_Script1 *self = (X3dScript_Script1 *)node;
    self->vec3f1_out[0] = self->float1_in;
    self->vec3f1_out[1] = 0;
    self->vec3f1_out[2] = 0;
    "

    "java:
    X3dScript_Script1 script = (X3dScript_Script1)node;
    script.vec3f1_out[0] = script.float1_in;
    script.vec3f1_out[1] = 0;
    script.vec3f1_out[2] = 0;
    "
    ]
  }

When you use a Script node in the Wonderland module export and the java code needs a extra "import" statement, create a special  WonderlandImportJava export data container node and add the import  statement to the "code" field.

See the directories docs/export_example_c, docs/export_example_c++ and docs/export_example_java of the white_dune source archive for examples.

Examples

dune -nostereo

start dune this way, if you have a stereo capable visual, but no shutterglases or other quadbuffer based technology.

dune -xinput magellan -allxyz=10,100,,0.0000002 -xinput dialbox-1 -x=0 -y=2 -z=4 -xrot=1 -yrot=3 -zrot=5 -all=1000,,wheel

starts dune with a magellan xinputdevice with factor 10, acceleration 100  and a ignore value of 0.0000002 on the xyz axes  and a dialbox device with
x axis = 0. axis
y axis = 2. axis
z axis = 4. axis
rotation around x axis = 1. axis
rotation around y axis = 3. axis
rotation around y axis = 5. axis
all axes use factor 1000 and all to not deliver zero if released

dune -joystick /dev/input/js0 -z=,3 -axes=3

starts dune with a linux joystick, set acceleration of the z axis to 3 and disables the 4. (5., 6., ...) axis.

dune -xinput magellan -z=3 -xrot=2 -none=2

starts dune with a xinput/magellan device, swapping axis number 2 and axis number 3, with axis number 2 disabled.

dune -nxtdials

starts dune with a mindstorms nxt usb device, all axes are automatic handled as wheels.

dune -aflock /dev/ttyS1 -numbirds 2 -master 1 -wand 2 -tracker 3

starts dune with a Ascension Flock of Birds. Master transmitter (a Extended Range Controller (ERC)) at FBB adress 1  is connected to the serial device /dev/ttyS1, use 2 Birds,  one attached to a "3D Mouse" device at FBB adress 2 and one attached  to a head tracking device at FBB adress 3.

dune -wonderland wonderland/modules -manyclasses Test.x3dv

Exports the content of Test.x3dv as java source for wonderland 0.5 to the directory wonderland/modules/exportX3dv/test.
To compile the java source to a wonderland module  wonderland/modules/exportX3dv/test/dist/test.jar change to the directory wonderland/modules/exportX3dv/test and use "ant" or "ant deploy".

Files

$HOME/.dunerc
default file to load/store settings 
(see DUNERC environment variable for more information)
    $HOME/.dune_crash_*_*.wrl
    stores the vrml file in case of a crash

Environment

DUNERC filename to load/store details of dunes screen layout and

settings of the "options" menupoint.
If this filename is not writable, settings are only loaded, not stored.
If DUNERC is not set, the file $HOME/.dunerc is used under  Linux/UNIX/MacOSX or the registry under Micro$oft Windows.

DUNEDOCS  path to documentation directory
LANG  the first two characters of then environment variable LANG

are compared to the ISO 3166 country shortcut of the supported  languages. For example, if LANG is set to de_DE, german menu, dialogs and  errormessages are used.

Bugs

Dune need valid vrml97/x3dv code to work, it can not load a invalid  VRML97/X3DV file.
White_dune can load XML encoded X3D files via a translator.
Use the menupoint Options -> Input Settings... to configure a X3D/XML to X3DV translator.
dune is software in development, it is not 100% free of bugs. Unsucessful crashes should be rare, lucky crashes allow to get  back the data. (see "Exit Status").
Currently not all VRML97/X3D nodes are displayed (e.g. MovieTexture,  NurbsSweptSurface or NurbsSwungSurface) or displayed correctly  (e.g. Text or Viewpoint).

Diagnostics

Exit status is 0 for sucessfull operation.
Exit status is 1 if inputfile can not be sucessfully read or  other initialisation error.
Exit status is 2 in case of a X11 server crash.
Exit status is 11 in case of a X11 initialisation error.
Exit status is 97 in case one of the inputfiles is a VRML 1 file (the VRML 1 format is not supported).
In case of a coredump/crash, the exit status can be undefined.

Exit Status

In case of a crash (e.g. X11 server crash or signal (coredump) in case of a  internal error), dune tries to write it's contence to the file  $HOME/.dune_crash_*_*.wrl. This works in most cases, but not if the  internal data structure has been destroyed. When white_dune is restarted,  the filename is shown in the "recent files" part of the program menu.
Intermediate files .dune* files (e.g. for preview) are only deleted when white_dune exits normally. In case of a crash, this files remain.

See Also

illegal2vrml(1), javac(1), java(1), Xvfb(1), xterm(1), FreeWRL(1), cosmoplayer(1), cosmoworlds(1),

ISO/IEC 14772

ISO/IEC 19776-2

Authors

Stephen F. White and others
See README file for details

Referenced By

dune4kids(1), gitview(1).

2017-09-20 white_dune 0.99rc766