dnsviz-print - Man Page

print the assessment of diagnostic DNS queries

Synopsis

dnsviz print [ options ] [ domain_name... ]

Description

Process the results of diagnostic DNS queries previously performed, e.g., using dnsviz-probe(1), to assess the health of the associated DNS deployments for one or more domain names specified.  The results of this processing are presented in textual output.

The source of the diagnostic query input is either a file specified with -r or standard input.

Domain names to be processed may be passed either as command-line arguments, in a file (using the -f option), or simply implied using the diagnostic query input.  The latter is the preferred methodology (and the simplest) and is useful, except in cases where the input contains diagnostic queries for multiple domain names, only a subset of which are to be processed.

If -f is not used and no domain names are supplied on the command line, then the domain names to be processed are extracted from the diagnostic query input.  If the -f option is used, then names may not be specified on the command line.

The domain names passed as input are fully-qualified domain names, such as example.com, www.example.com, _443._tcp.example.com, 1.2.0.192.in-addr.arpa, or 8.b.d.0.1.0.0.2.ip6.arpa.  Because it is implied that specified domain names are fully qualified, no trailing dot is necessary.

The output is appropriate for terminal or text file output, using colors (where supported by the terminal) and symbols to designate status and errors in a loosely-defined textual format.

Options

-f,  --names-file filename

Read names from a file (one name per line), instead of from command line.

If this option is used, then names may not be specified on the command line.

-r,  --input-file filename

Read diagnostic query input from the specified file, instead of from standard input.

-t,  --trusted-keys-file filename

Use trusted keys from the specified file when processing diagnostic queries. This overrides the default behavior of using the installed keys for the root zone.

The format of this file is master zone file format and should contain DNSKEY records that correspond to one more trusted keys for one or more DNS zones.

This option may be used multiple times on the command line.

-a,  --algorithms alg[,alg...]

Support only the DNSSEC algorithms specified.  If this option is used, any algorithms not specified will appear as "unsupported."  The status of any RRSIG records corresponding to unsupported algorithms will be unknown.  Additionally, when a zone has only DS records with unsupported algorithms, the zone is treated as "insecure", assuming the DS records are properly authenticated.

-d,  --digest-algorithms digest_alg[,digest_alg...]

Support only the DNSSEC digest algorithms specified.  If this option is used, any digest algorithms not specified will appear as "unsupported."  The status of any DS records corresponding to unsupported digest algorithms will be unknown.  Additionally, when a zone has only DS records with unsupported digest algorithms, the zone is treated as "insecure", assuming the DS records are properly authenticated.

-b,  --validate-prohibited-algs

Validate algorithms for which validation is otherwise prohibited.  Current DNSSEC specification prohibits validators from validating older, weaker algorithms associated with DNSKEY and DS records (see RFC 8624).  If this option is used, then a warning will be still be issued for DNSSEC records that use these older algorithms, but the code will still assess their cryptographic status, rather than ignoring them.

-C,  --enforce-cookies

Enforce DNS cookies strictly. Require a server to return a "BADCOOKIE" response when a query contains a COOKIE option with no server cookie or with an invalid server cookie.

-P,  --allow-private

Allow private IP addresses for authoritative DNS servers.  By default, if the IP address corresponding to an authoritative server is in IP address space designated as "private", it is flagged as an error.  However, there are some cases where this is allowed.  For example, if the diagnostic queries are issued to servers in an experimental environment, this might be permissible.

-R,  --rr-types type[,type...]

Process queries of only the specified type(s) (e.g., A, AAAA).  The default is to process all types queried as part of the diagnostic input.

-O,  --derive-filename

Save the output to a file, whose name is derived from the domain name.

If this option is used when the diagnostic queries of multiple domain names are being processed, a file will be created for each domain name processed.

-o,  --output-file filename

Write the output to the specified file instead of to standard output, which is the default.

If this option is used when the diagnostic queries of multiple domain name are being processed, a single file (the one specified) will be created, which will contain the collective output for all domain names processed.

-h

Display the usage and exit.

Output

The following is an example of the output:

. [.]

[.]  DNSKEY: 8/1518/256 [.], 8/19036/257 [.]

[.]    RRSIG: ./8/19036 (2015-08-20 - 2015-09-03) [.]

com [.] [.]

[.]  DS: 8/30909/2 [.]

[.]    RRSIG: ./8/1518 (2015-08-26 - 2015-09-05) [.]

[.]  DNSKEY: 8/30909/257 [.], 8/35864/256 [.]

[.]    RRSIG: com/8/30909 (2015-08-24 - 2015-08-31) [.]

example.com [.] [.]

[.]  DS: 8/31406/1 [.], 8/31406/2 [.], 8/31589/1 [-], 8/31589/2 [-], 8/43547/1 [-], 8/43547/2 [-]

[.]    RRSIG: com/8/35864 (2015-08-24 - 2015-08-31) [.]

[.]  DNSKEY: 8/54108/256 [.], 8/31406/257 [.], 8/63870/256 [.]

[.]    RRSIG: example.com/8/31406 (2015-08-24 - 2015-09-14) [.]

www.example.com

[.]  A: 192.0.2.1

[.]    RRSIG: example.com/8/31406 (2015-08-24 - 2015-09-14) [.]

non-existent.example.com

[.]  A: NXDOMAIN

[.]    SOA: sns.dns.icann.org. noc.dns.icann.org. 2015082401 7200 3600 1209600 3600

[.]      RRSIG: example.com/8/54108 (2015-08-24 - 2015-09-14) [.]

[.]    PROOF:  [.]

[.]      NSEC: example.com. www.example.com. A NS SOA TXT AAAA RRSIG NSEC DNSKEY

[.]        RRSIG: example.com/8/54108 (2015-08-21 - 2015-09-11) [.]

Domain Names

The output above is divided into several sections, each corresponding to the domain name that starts the section (e.g., example.com).  Following the headers of names that correspond to zones are two sets of characters, each within brackets.  The characters within the first set of brackets represent the status of the zone.  The characters within the second set of brackets represent the status of the delegation (note that this second set of bracketed characters will not be present for the root zone).

The first character within each set of brackets is one of the following:

.

secure zone or delegation

-

insecure zone or delegation

!

bogus zone or delegation

?

lame or incomplete delegation

If there is a second character within the brackets, it represents the following:

!

errors are present

?

warnings are present

For example, an insecure delegation with warnings is represented as: [-?]  And a secure delegation with no errors is shown as: [.]

Query Responses

The lines in each section, below the header, represent responses to queries for that name from one or more servers.  The bracketed characters at the far left of each line represent the status of the response or response component on the rest of the line.  The first character in the brackets represents the authentication status:

.

secure

-

insecure

!

bogus

If there is a second character within the brackets, it represents the following:

!

errors are present

?

warnings are present

For example, an insecure status with warnings is represented as: [-?]  And a secure status with no errors is shown as: [.]

The status of the response is followed by the type corresponding to the query or response.  For example, "A" means that data following is in response to a query of type A (IPv4 address) for the name of the corresponding section.  When the response is positive (i.e., there is data in the answer section), the corresponding data is shown on the right (with some exceptions) as a comma-separated set of records within the RRset.  DNSKEY, DS, and RRSIG records show an abbreviated format of their records, as follows:

DNSKEY:

<algorithm number>/<key tag>/<flags>

Example: 8/35864/256

DS:

<algorithm number>/<key tag>/<digest type>

Example: 8/30909/2

RRSIG:

<signer>/<algorithm number>/<key tag> (<inception> - <expiration>)

Example: com/8/35864 (2015-08-24 - 2015-08-31)

Following each record within a DNSKEY, DS, or RRSIG response is a bracketed set of characters, the first of which represents validity:

.

valid

-

indeterminate

!

invalid/expired/premature

?

indeterminate due to unknown algorithm

If there is a second character within the brackets, it represents the following:

!

errors are present

?

warnings are present

For example, a DNSKEY with warnings is shown as: [.?]  A DS corresponding to a non-existent DNSKEY is represented as: [-].

RRSIGs are shown below the RRset they cover, indented from the RRset.

Negative Responses

If a response is negative, then the appropriate "NODATA" or "NXDOMAIN" text is shown adjacent the type queried, e.g., "A: NXDOMDAIN".  If there was an SOA record and/or NSEC(3) proof, then they are listed below, indented from the query type.

The NSEC or NSEC3 records (and their RRSIGs) comprising a proof are grouped by indentation under the title "PROOF" which is itself indented under the negative response line.  Following "PROOF" is a bracketed set of characters with the same meaning as those used for DS, DNSKEY, and RRSIG.

Errors and Warnings

Textual errors and warnings are listed below the response components with which the issues are associated.  Each error or warning is listed on its own line and prefaced with "E:" or "W:", signifying whether it is an error or warning, respectively.

Exit Codes

The exit codes are:

0

Program terminated normally.

1

Incorrect usage.

2

Required package dependencies were not found.

3

There was an error processing the input or saving the output.

4

Program execution was interrupted, or an unknown error occurred.

See Also

dnsviz(1), dnsviz-probe(1), dnsviz-grok(1), dnsviz-graph(1), dnsviz-query(1)

Referenced By

dnsviz(1), dnsviz-graph(1), dnsviz-grok(1), dnsviz-probe(1), dnsviz-query(1).

11 Mar 2021 0.9.3