crun - Man Page

a fast and lightweight OCI runtime

Synopsis

crun [global options] command [command options] [arguments...]

Description

crun is a command line program for running Linux containers that follow the Open Container Initiative (OCI) format.

Commands

create Create a container.  The runtime detaches from the container process once the container environment is created.  It is necessary to successively use start for starting the container.

delete Remove definition for a container.

exec Exec a command in a running container.

list List known containers.

kill Send the specified signal to the container init process.  If no signal is specified, SIGTERM is used.

ps Show the processes running in a container.

run Create and immediately start a container.

spec Generate a configuration file.

start Start a container that was previously created.  A container cannot be started multiple times.

state Output the state of a container.

pause Pause all the processes in the container.

resume Resume the processes in the container.

update Update container resource constraints.

State

By default, when running as root user, crun saves its state under the /run/crun directory.  As unprivileged user, instead the XDG_RUNTIME_DIR environment variable is honored, and the directory $XDG_RUNTIME_DIR/crun is used.  The global option --root overrides this setting.

Global Options

--debug
Produce verbose output.
--log=LOG-DESTINATION
Define the destination for the error and warning messages generated by crun. If the error happens late in the container init process, when crun already stopped watching it, then it will be printed to the container stderr.

It is specified in the form BACKEND:SPECIFIER.

These following backends are supported:

If no backend is specified, then file: is used by default.

--log-format=FORMAT
Define the format of the log messages.  It can either be text, or json.  The default is text.
--no-pivot
Use chroot(2) instead of pivot_root(2) when creating the container. This option is not safe, and should be avoided.
--root=DIR
Defines where to store the state for crun containers.
--systemd-cgroup
Use systemd for configuring cgroups.  If not specified, the cgroup is created directly using the cgroupfs backend.
--cgroup-manager=MANAGER
Specify what cgroup manager must be used.  Permitted values are cgroupfs, systemd and disabled.
-?, --help
Print a help list.
--usage
Print a short usage message.
-V, --version
Print program version

Create Options

crun [global options] create [options] CONTAINER

--bundle=BUNDLE
Path to the OCI bundle, by default it is the current directory.
--console-socket=SOCKET
Path to a UNIX socket that will receive the master end of the tty for the container.
--no-new-keyring
Keep the same session key
--preserve-fds=N
Additional number of FDs to pass into the container.
--pid-file=PATH
Path to the file that will contain the container process PID.

Run Options

crun [global options] run [options] CONTAINER

--bundle=BUNDLE
Path to the OCI bundle, by default it is the current directory.
--console-socket=SOCKET
Path to a UNIX socket that will receive the master end of the tty for the container.
--no-new-keyring
Keep the same session key.
--preserve-fds=N
Additional number of FDs to pass into the container.
--pid-file=PATH
Path to the file that will contain the container process PID.
--detach
Detach the container process from the current session.

Delete Options

crun [global options] delete [options] CONTAINER

--force
Delete the container even if it is still running.
--regex=REGEX
Delete all the containers that satisfy the specified regex.

Exec Options

crun [global options] exec [options] CONTAINER CMD

--console-socket=SOCKET
Path to a UNIX socket that will receive the master end of the tty for the container.
--cwd=PATH
Set the working directory for the process to PATH.
--cap=CAP
Specify an additional capability to add to the process.
--detach
Detach the container process from the current session.
--env=ENV
Specify an environment variable.
--preserve-fds=N
Additional number of FDs to pass into the container.
--process=FILE
Path to a file containing the process JSON configuration.
--pid-file=PATH
Path to the file that will contain the new process PID.
-t --tty
Allocate a pseudo TTY.
-u USERSPEC --user=USERSPEC
Specify the user in the form UID[:GID].

List Options

crun [global options] list [options]

-q --quiet
Show only the container ID.

Kill Options

crun [global options] kill [options] CONTAINER SIGNAL

--all
Kill all the processes in the container.
--regex=REGEX
Kill all the containers that satisfy the specified regex.

PS Options

crun [global options] ps [options]

--format=FORMAT
Specify the output format.  It must be either table or json. By default table is used.

Spec Options

crun [global options] spec [options]

--rootless
Generate a config.json file that is usable by an unprivileged user.

Update Options

crun [global options] update [options] CONTAINER

--blkio-weight=VALUE
Specifies per cgroup weight.
--cpu-period=VALUE
CPU CFS period to be used for hardcapping.

--cpu-quota=VALUE** CPU CFS hardcap limit.

--cpu-rt-period=VALUE
CPU realtime period to be used for hardcapping.
--cpu-rt-runtime=VALUE
CPU realtime hardcap limit.
--cpu-share=VALUE
CPU shares.
--cpuset-cpus=VALUE
CPU(s) to use.
--cpuset-mems=VALUE
Memory node(s) to use.
--kernel-memory=VALUE
Kernel memory limit.
--kernel-memory-tcp=VALUE
Kernel memory limit for TCP buffer.
--memory=VALUE
Memory limit.
--memory-reservation=VALUE
Memory reservation or soft_limit.
--memory-swap=VALUE
Total memory usage.
--pids-limit=VALUE
Maximum number of pids allowed in the container.
-r, --resources=FILE
Path to the file containing the resources to update.

Extensions to OCI

run.oci.seccomp_fail_unknown_syscall=1

If the annotation run.oci.seccomp_fail_unknown_syscall is present, then crun will fail when an unknown syscall is encountered in the seccomp configuration.

run.oci.keep_original_groups=1

If the annotation run.oci.keep_original_groups is present, then crun will skip the setgroups syscall that is used to either set the additional groups specified in the OCI configuration, or to reset the list of additional groups if none is specified.

run.oci.timens_offset=ID SEC NSEC

Specify the offset to be written to /proc/self/timens_offsets when creating a time namespace.

tmpcopyup mount options

If the tmpcopyup option is specified for a tmpfs, then the path that is shadowed by the tmpfs mount is recursively copied up to the tmpfs itself.

Automatically create user namespace

When running as user different than root, an user namespace is automatically created even if it is not specified in the config file. The current user is mapped to the ID 0 in the container, and any additional id specified in the files /etc/subuid and /etc/subgid is automatically added starting with ID 1.

CGROUP v2

crun has some basic support for cgroup v2.  Since the OCI spec is designed for cgroup v1, in some cases there is need to convert from the cgroup v1 configuration to cgroup v2.

These are the OCI resources currently supported with cgroup v2 and how they are converted when needed from the cgroup v1 configuration.

Memory controller

OCI (x)cgroup 2 value (y)conversioncomment
limitmemory.maxy = xswapmemory.swap_maxy = xreservationmemory.lowy = x.TE
OCI (x)cgroup 2 value (y)conversioncomment
limitpids.maxy = x.TE
OCI (x)cgroup 2 value (y)conversioncomment
sharescpu.weighty = (1 + ((x - 2) * 9999) / 262142)
convert from [2-262144] to [1-10000]
periodcpu.maxy = xperiod and quota are written together
quotacpu.maxy = xperiod and quota are written together

blkio controller

OCI (x)cgroup 2 value (y)conversioncomment
weightio.bfq.weighty = (1 + (x - 10) * 9999 / 990)
convert linearly from [10-1000] to [1-10000]
weight_deviceio.bfq.weighty = (1 + (x - 10) * 9999 / 990)
convert linearly from [10-1000] to [1-10000]
rbpsio.maxy=xwbpsio.maxy=xriopsio.maxy=xwiopsio.maxy=x.TE
OCI (x)cgroup 2 value (y)conversioncomment
cpuscpuset.cpusy = xmemscpuset.memsy = x.TE
OCI (x)cgroup 2 value (y)conversioncomment
.limit_in_byteshugetlb..maxy = x.TE

Referenced By

buildah-bud(1), buildah-run(1), podman-build(1), podman-create(1), podman-run(1).