cbmc man page

cbmc — Bounded Model Checker for C/C++ and Java programs

Synopsis

cbmc [--property property-id] file.c ...

cbmc [--show-properties] file.c ...

cbmc [--all-properties] file.c ...

goto-cc [-I include-path] [-c] file.c [-o outfile.o]

goto-instrument infile outfile

Only the most useful options are listed here; see below for the remainder.

Description

cbmc generates traces that demonstrate how an assertion can be violated, or proves that the assertion cannot be violated within a given number of loop iterations. CBMC can read C/C++ source-code directly, or a goto-binary generated by goto-cc. Java programs are given as class or JAR files. Without any further options, cbmc checks all properties (automatically generated or user-specified) found in the program. If any of the properties can be violated, a counterexample is printed and the analysis is aborted. The analysis can be restricted to a particular property with the --property option. The verification result for all properties can be obtained by means of the --all-properties option.

goto-cc reads source code, and generates a goto-binary. Its command-line interface is designed to mimic that of gcc(1). Note in particular that goto-cc distinguishes between compiling and linking phases, just as gcc does. cbmc expects a goto-binary for which linking has been completed.

goto-instrument reads a goto-binary, performs a given program transformation, and then writes the resulting program as goto-binary on disc.

The usual flow is to (1) translate source into a goto-binary using goto-cc, then (2) perform instrumentation with goto-instrument, and finally (3) perform the analysis with cbmc.

Options

FRONTEND OPTIONS (cbmc and goto-cc)

-I path
Set include path (C/C++)
-D macro
Define preprocessor macro (C/C++)
--preprocess
Stop after preprocessing
--show-symbol-table
Show symbol table
--show-goto-functions
Show goto program

ARCHITECTURAL OPTIONS (cbmc and goto-cc)

cbmc by default uses architectural settings that match those of the machine cbmc is executed on, i.e., the settings below are only needed when verifying software that is meant to run on a different architecture or OS. goto-cc generates a goto-binary for a particular architecture, i.e., the architecture cannot be changed after the goto-binary is generated.

--16, --32, --64
Set width of int
--LP64, --ILP64, --LLP64, --ILP32, --LP32
Set width of int, long and pointers
--little-endian
Allow little-endian word-byte conversions
--big-endian
Allow big-endian word-byte conversions
--unsigned-char
Make "char" unsigned by default
--arch
Set target architecture
--os
Set target operating system
--no-arch
Don't set up an architecture
--no-library
Disable built-in abstract C library
--round-to-nearest, --round-to-plus-inf, --round-to-minus-inf, --round-to-zero
IEEE floating point rounding mode to use when the program begins (default is round to nearest). The program under verification can override this setting, e.g., with fesetround(3).

PROGRAM INSTRUMENTATION OPTIONS (cbmc and goto-instrument)

Both cbmc and goto-instrument can generate assertions that catch specific common errors, as listed below.

--bounds-check
Enable array bounds checks
--div-by-zero-check
Enable division by zero checks
--pointer-check
Enable pointer checks
--signed-overflow-check
Enable arithmetic over- and underflow checks for signed integer arithmetic
--unsigned-overflow-check
Enable arithmetic over- and underflow checks for unsigned integer arithmetic
--nan-check
Check floating-point computations for NaN
--no-assertions
Ignore user-provided assertions
--no-assumptions
Ignore user-provided assumptions
--error-label label
Check that the given label is unreachable

PROGRAM INSTRUMENTATION OPTIONS (goto-instrument only)

goto-instrument supports further, more complex, program transformations.

--nondet-volatile
Makes reads from volatile variables non-deterministic
--isr function
Instruments an interrupt service routine with the given name
--mmio
Instruments memory-mapped I/O
--nondet-static
Variables with static lifetime are initialized non-deterministically
--dump-c
Output ANSI-C source code instead of a goto binary.

BMC OPTIONS (cbmc)

--all-properties
Report status of all properties
--show-properties
Only show properties
--show-loops
Show the loops in the program
--cover-assertions
Check which assertions are reachable
--function name
Set main function name
--property id
Only check specific property with given identifier
--program-only
Only show program expression
--depth nr
Limit search depth
--unwind nr
Unwind loops nr times
--unwindset L:B,...
Unwind loop L with a bound of B (use --show-loops to get the loop IDs)
--show-vcc
Show the verification conditions
--slice-formula
Remove assignments unrelated to property
--no-unwinding-assertions
Do not generate unwinding assertions
--no-pretty-names
Do not simplify identifiers

BACKEND OPTIONS (cbmc)

--dimacs
Generate CNF in DIMACS format for use by external SAT solvers
--beautify-greedy
Beautify the counterexample (greedy heuristic)
--smt2
Output subgoals in SMT2 syntax
--boolector
Use Boolector (experimental)
--mathsat
Use MathSAT (experimental)
--cvc
Use CVC3 (experimental)
--yices
Use Yices (experimental)
--z3
Use Z3 (experimental)
--refine
Use refinement procedure (experimental)
--outfile filename
Output formula to given file
--arrays-uf-never
Never turn arrays into uninterpreted functions
--arrays-uf-always
Always turn arrays into uninterpreted functions

Environment

All tools honor the TMPDIR environment variable when generating temporary files and directories. Furthermore note that the preprocessor used by CBMC will use environment variables to locate header files. GOTO-CC aims to accept all environment variables that GCC does.

Info

JUNE 2014 cbmc-4.7 User Manual