bundle-update man page
bundle-update — Update your gems to the latest available versions
bundle update *gems [--group=NAME] [--source=NAME] [--local] [--ruby]
Update the gems specified (all gems, if none are specified), ignoring the previously installed gems specified in the Gemfile.lock. In general, you should use bundle install(1) bundle-install.1.html to install the same exact gems and versions across machines.
You would use bundle update to explicitly update the version of a gem.
Only update the gems in the specified group. For instance, you can update all gems in the development group with bundle update --group development. You can also call bundle update rails --group test to update the rails gem and all gems in the test group, for example.
The name of a :git or :path source used in the Gemfile(5). For instance, with a :git source of http://github.com/rails/rails.git, you would call bundle update --source rails
Do not attempt to fetch gems remotely and use the gem cache instead.
Update the locked version of Ruby to the current version of Ruby.
Update the locked version of bundler to the invoked bundler version.
Updating All Gems
If you run bundle update with no parameters, bundler will ignore any previously installed gems and resolve all dependencies again based on the latest versions of all gems available in the sources.
Consider the following Gemfile(5):
source "https://rubygems.org" gem "rails", "3.0.0.rc" gem "nokogiri"
When you run bundle install(1) bundle-install.1.html the first time, bundler will resolve all of the dependencies, all the way down, and install what you need:
Fetching gem metadata from https://rubygems.org/......... Resolving dependencies... Installing builder 2.1.2 Installing abstract 1.0.0 Installing rack 1.2.8 Using bundler 1.7.6 Installing rake 10.4.0 Installing polyglot 0.3.5 Installing mime-types 1.25.1 Installing i18n 0.4.2 Installing mini_portile 0.6.1 Installing tzinfo 0.3.42 Installing rack-mount 0.6.14 Installing rack-test 0.5.7 Installing treetop 1.4.15 Installing thor 0.14.6 Installing activesupport 3.0.0.rc Installing erubis 2.6.6 Installing activemodel 3.0.0.rc Installing arel 0.4.0 Installing mail 2.2.20 Installing activeresource 3.0.0.rc Installing actionpack 3.0.0.rc Installing activerecord 3.0.0.rc Installing actionmailer 3.0.0.rc Installing railties 3.0.0.rc Installing rails 3.0.0.rc Installing nokogiri 1.6.5 Bundle complete! 2 Gemfile dependencies, 26 gems total. Use `bundle show [gemname]` to see where a bundled gem is installed.
As you can see, even though you have two gems in the Gemfile(5), your application needs 26 different gems in order to run. Bundler remembers the exact versions it installed in Gemfile.lock. The next time you run bundle install(1) bundle-install.1.html, bundler skips the dependency resolution and installs the same gems as it installed last time.
After checking in the Gemfile.lock into version control and cloning it on another machine, running bundle install(1) bundle-install.1.html will still install the gems that you installed last time. You don´t need to worry that a new release of erubis or mail changes the gems you use.
However, from time to time, you might want to update the gems you are using to the newest versions that still match the gems in your Gemfile(5).
To do this, run bundle update, which will ignore the Gemfile.lock, and resolve all the dependencies again. Keep in mind that this process can result in a significantly different set of the 25 gems, based on the requirements of new gems that the gem authors released since the last time you ran bundle update.
Updating a List of Gems
Sometimes, you want to update a single gem in the Gemfile(5), and leave the rest of the gems that you specified locked to the versions in the Gemfile.lock.
For instance, in the scenario above, imagine that nokogiri releases version 1.4.4, and you want to update it without updating Rails and all of its dependencies. To do this, run bundle update nokogiri.
Bundler will update nokogiri and any of its dependencies, but leave alone Rails and its dependencies.
Sometimes, multiple gems declared in your Gemfile(5) are satisfied by the same second-level dependency. For instance, consider the case of thin and rack-perftools-profiler.
source "https://rubygems.org" gem "thin" gem "rack-perftools-profiler"
The thin gem depends on rack >= 1.0, while rack-perftools-profiler depends on rack ~> 1.0. If you run bundle install, you get:
Fetching source index for https://rubygems.org/ Installing daemons (1.1.0) Installing eventmachine (0.12.10) with native extensions Installing open4 (1.0.1) Installing perftools.rb (0.4.7) with native extensions Installing rack (1.2.1) Installing rack-perftools_profiler (0.0.2) Installing thin (1.2.7) with native extensions Using bundler (1.0.0.rc.3)
In this case, the two gems have their own set of dependencies, but they share rack in common. If you run bundle update thin, bundler will update daemons, eventmachine and rack, which are dependencies of thin, but not open4 or perftools.rb, which are dependencies of rack-perftools_profiler. Note that bundle update thin will update rack even though it´s also a dependency of rack-perftools_profiler.
In short, when you update a gem using bundle update, bundler will update all dependencies of that gem, including those that are also dependencies of another gem.
In this scenario, updating the thin version manually in the Gemfile(5), and then running bundle install(1) bundle-install.1.html will only update daemons and eventmachine, but not rack. For more information, see the CONSERVATIVE UPDATING section of bundle install(1) bundle-install.1.html.
In general, when working with an application managed with bundler, you should use the following workflow:
After you create your Gemfile(5) for the first time, run
$ bundle install
Check the resulting Gemfile.lock into version control
$ git add Gemfile.lock
When checking out this repository on another development machine, run
$ bundle install
When checking out this repository on a deployment machine, run
$ bundle install --deployment
After changing the Gemfile(5) to reflect a new or update dependency, run
$ bundle install
Make sure to check the updated Gemfile.lock into version control
$ git add Gemfile.lock
If bundle install(1) bundle-install.1.html reports a conflict, manually update the specific gems that you changed in the Gemfile(5)
$ bundle update rails thin
If you want to update all the gems to the latest possible versions that still match the gems listed in the Gemfile(5), run
$ bundle update