buildah-from man page

buildah-from — Creates a new working container, either from scratch or using a specified image as a starting point.

Synopsis

buildah from [options] image

Description

Creates a working container based upon the specified image name.  If the supplied image name is "scratch" a new empty container is created.  Image names use a "transport":"details" format.

Multiple transports are supported:

dir:path
 An existing local directory path containing the manifest, layer tarballs, and signatures in individual files. This is a non-standardized format, primarily useful for debugging or noninvasive image inspection.

docker://docker-reference (Default)
 An image in a registry implementing the "Docker Registry HTTP API V2". By default, uses the authorization state in $XDG\_RUNTIME\_DIR/containers/auth.json, which is set using (podman login). If the authorization state is not found there, $HOME/.docker/config.json is checked, which is set using (docker login).
 If docker-reference does not include a registry name, localhost will be consulted first, followed by any registries named in the registries configuration.

docker-archive:path
 An image is retrieved as a docker load formatted file.

docker-daemon:docker-reference
 An image docker-reference stored in the docker daemon's internal storage.  docker-reference must include either a tag or a digest.  Alternatively, when reading images, the format can also be docker-daemon:algo:digest (an image ID).

oci-archive:path:tag
 An image tag in a directory compliant with "Open Container Image Layout Specification" at path.

ostree:image[@/absolute/repo/path]
 An image in local OSTree repository.  /absolute/repo/path defaults to /ostree/repo.

Dependencies

Buildah resolves the path to the registry to pull from by using the /etc/containers/registries.conf file, registries.conf(5).  If the buildah from command fails with an "image not known" error, first verify that the registries.conf file is installed and configured appropriately.

Return Value

The container ID of the container that was created.  On error 1 is returned.

Options

--add-host=[]
Add a custom host-to-IP mapping (host:ip)

Add a line to /etc/hosts. The format is hostname:ip. The --add-host option can be set multiple times.

--authfile path
Path of the authentication file. Default is ${XDG_RUNTIME_DIR}/containers/auth.json, which is set using podman login. If the authorization state is not found there, $HOME/.docker/config.json is checked, which is set using docker login.
--cap-add=CAP_xxx
Add the specified capability to the default set of capabilities which will be supplied for subsequent buildah run invocations which use this container. Certain capabilities are granted by default; this option can be used to add more.
--cap-drop=CAP_xxx
Remove the specified capability from the default set of capabilities which will be supplied for subsequent buildah run invocations which use this container. The CAP_AUDIT_WRITE, CAP_CHOWN, CAP_DAC_OVERRIDE, CAP_FOWNER, CAP_FSETID, CAP_KILL, CAP_MKNOD, CAP_NET_BIND_SERVICE, CAP_SETFCAP, CAP_SETGID, CAP_SETPCAP, CAP_SETUID, and CAP_SYS_CHROOT capabilities are granted by default; this option can be used to remove them.

If a capability is specified to both the --cap-add and --cap-drop options, it will be dropped, regardless of the order in which the options were given.

--cert-dir path
Use certificates at path (*.crt, *.cert, *.key) to connect to the registry. The default certificates directory is /etc/containers/certs.d.
--cgroup-parent=""
Path to cgroups under which the cgroup for the container will be created. If the path is not absolute, the path is considered to be relative to the cgroups path of the init process. Cgroups will be created if they do not already exist.
--cidfile ContainerIDFile
Write the container ID to the file.
--cni-config-dir=directory
Location of CNI configuration files which will dictate which plugins will be used to configure network interfaces and routing when the container is subsequently used for buildah run, if processes to be started will be run in their own network namespaces, and networking is not disabled.
--cni-plugin-path=directory[:directory[:directory[...]]]
List of directories in which the CNI plugins which will be used for configuring network namespaces can be found.
--cpu-period=0
Limit the CPU CFS (Completely Fair Scheduler) period

Limit the container's CPU usage. This flag tell the kernel to restrict the container's CPU usage to the period you specify.

--cpu-quota=0
Limit the CPU CFS (Completely Fair Scheduler) quota

Limit the container's CPU usage. By default, containers run with the full CPU resource. This flag tell the kernel to restrict the container's CPU usage to the quota you specify.

--cpu-shares, -c=0
CPU shares (relative weight)

By default, all containers get the same proportion of CPU cycles. This proportion can be modified by changing the container's CPU share weighting relative to the weighting of all other running containers.

To modify the proportion from the default of 1024, use the --cpu-shares flag to set the weighting to 2 or higher.

The proportion will only apply when CPU-intensive processes are running. When tasks in one container are idle, other containers can use the left-over CPU time. The actual amount of CPU time will vary depending on the number of containers running on the system.

For example, consider three containers, one has a cpu-share of 1024 and two others have a cpu-share setting of 512. When processes in all three containers attempt to use 100% of CPU, the first container would receive 50% of the total CPU time. If you add a fourth container with a cpu-share of 1024, the first container only gets 33% of the CPU. The remaining containers receive 16.5%, 16.5% and 33% of the CPU.

On a multi-core system, the shares of CPU time are distributed over all CPU cores. Even if a container is limited to less than 100% of CPU time, it can use 100% of each individual CPU core.

For example, consider a system with more than three cores. If you start one container {C0} with -c=512 running one process, and another container {C1} with -c=1024 running two processes, this can result in the following division of CPU shares:

PID    container    CPU CPU share
100    {C0}     0   100% of CPU0
101    {C1}     1   100% of CPU1
102    {C1}     2   100% of CPU2
--cpuset-cpus=""
CPUs in which to allow execution (0-3, 0,1)
--cpuset-mems=""
Memory nodes (MEMs) in which to allow execution (0-3, 0,1). Only effective on NUMA systems.

If you have four memory nodes on your system (0-3), use --cpuset-mems=0,1 then processes in your container will only use memory from the first two memory nodes.

--creds creds
The [username[:password]] to use to authenticate with the registry if required. If one or both values are not supplied, a command line prompt will appear and the value can be entered.  The password is entered without echo.
--ipc how
Sets the configuration for IPC namespaces when the container is subsequently used for buildah run. The configured value can be "" (the empty string) or "container" to indicate that a new IPC namespace should be created, or it can be "host" to indicate that the IPC namespace in which buildah itself is being run should be reused, or it can be the path to an IPC namespace which is already in use by another process.
--isolation type
Controls what type of isolation is used for running processes under buildah run.  Recognized types include oci (OCI-compatible runtime, the default), rootless (OCI-compatible runtime invoked using a modified configuration and its --rootless flag enabled, with --no-new-keyring added to its create invocation, with network and UTS namespaces disabled, and IPC, PID, and user namespaces enabled; the default for unprivileged users), and chroot (an internal wrapper that leans more toward chroot(1) than container technology).

Note: You can also override the default isolation type by setting the BUILDAH_ISOLATION environment variable.  export BUILDAH_ISOLATION=oci

--memory, -m=""
Memory limit (format: <number>[<unit>], where unit = b, k, m or g)

Allows you to constrain the memory available to a container. If the host supports swap memory, then the -m memory setting can be larger than physical RAM. If a limit of 0 is specified (not using -m), the container's memory is not limited. The actual limit may be rounded up to a multiple of the operating system's page size (the value would be very large, that's millions of trillions).

--memory-swap="LIMIT"
A limit value equal to memory plus swap. Must be used with the  -m (--memory) flag. The swap LIMIT should always be larger than -m (--memory) value.  By default, the swap LIMIT will be set to double the value of --memory.

The format of LIMIT is <number>[<unit>]. Unit can be b (bytes), k (kilobytes), m (megabytes), or g (gigabytes). If you don't specify a unit, b is used. Set LIMIT to -1 to enable unlimited swap.

--name name
A name for the working container
--net how --network how
Sets the configuration for network namespaces when the container is subsequently used for buildah run. The configured value can be "" (the empty string) or "container" to indicate that a new network namespace should be created, or it can be "host" to indicate that the network namespace in which buildah itself is being run should be reused, or it can be the path to a network namespace which is already in use by another process.
--pid how
Sets the configuration for PID namespaces when the container is subsequently used for buildah run. The configured value can be "" (the empty string) or "container" to indicate that a new PID namespace should be created, or it can be "host" to indicate that the PID namespace in which buildah itself is being run should be reused, or it can be the path to a PID namespace which is already in use by another process.
--pull
Pull the image if it is not present.  If this flag is disabled (with --pull=false) and the image is not present, the image will not be pulled. Defaults to true.
--pull-always
Pull the image even if a version of the image is already present.
--quiet, -q
If an image needs to be pulled from the registry, suppress progress output.
--security-opt=[]
Security Options

"label=user:USER"   : Set the label user for the container
 "label=role:ROLE"   : Set the label role for the container
 "label=type:TYPE"   : Set the label type for the container
 "label=level:LEVEL" : Set the label level for the container
 "label=disable"     : Turn off label confinement for the container
 "no-new-privileges" : Not supported

"seccomp=unconfined" : Turn off seccomp confinement for the container
 "seccomp=profile.json :  White listed syscalls seccomp Json file to be used as a seccomp filter

"apparmor=unconfined" : Turn off apparmor confinement for the container
 "apparmor=your-profile" : Set the apparmor confinement profile for the container

--shm-size=""
Size of /dev/shm. The format is <number><unit>. number must be greater than 0. Unit is optional and can be b (bytes), k (kilobytes), m(megabytes), or g (gigabytes). If you omit the unit, the system uses bytes. If you omit the size entirely, the system uses 64m.
--signature-policy signaturepolicy
Pathname of a signature policy file to use.  It is not recommended that this option be used, as the default behavior of using the system-wide default policy (frequently /etc/containers/policy.json) is most often preferred.
--tls-verify bool-value
Require HTTPS and verify certificates when talking to container registries (defaults to true)
--ulimit type=soft-limit[:hard-limit]
Specifies resource limits to apply to processes launched during buildah run. This option can be specified multiple times.  Recognized resource types include:
 "core": maximimum core dump size (ulimit -c)
 "cpu": maximum CPU time (ulimit -t)
 "data": maximum size of a process's data segment (ulimit -d)
 "fsize": maximum size of new files (ulimit -f)
 "locks": maximum number of file locks (ulimit -x)
 "memlock": maximum amount of locked memory (ulimit -l)
 "msgqueue": maximum amount of data in message queues (ulimit -q)
 "nice": niceness adjustment (nice -n, ulimit -e)
 "nofile": maximum number of open files (ulimit -n)
 "nofile": maximum number of open files (1048576); when run by root
 "nproc": maximum number of processes (ulimit -u)
 "nproc": maximum number of processes (1048576); when run by root
 "rss": maximum size of a process's (ulimit -m)
 "rtprio": maximum real-time scheduling priority (ulimit -r)
 "rttime": maximum amount of real-time execution between blocking syscalls
 "sigpending": maximum number of pending signals (ulimit -i)
 "stack": maximum stack size (ulimit -s)
--userns how
Sets the configuration for user namespaces when the container is subsequently used for buildah run. The configured value can be "" (the empty string) or "container" to indicate that a new user namespace should be created, it can be "host" to indicate that the user namespace in which buildah itself is being run should be reused, or it can be the path to an user namespace which is already in use by another process.
--userns-uid-map mapping
Directly specifies a UID mapping which should be used to set ownership, at the filesytem level, on the container's contents. Commands run using buildah run will default to being run in their own user namespaces, configured using the UID and GID maps.

Entries in this map take the form of one or more triples of a starting in-container UID, a corresponding starting host-level UID, and the number of consecutive IDs which the map entry represents.

This option overrides the remap-uids setting in the options section of /etc/containers/storage.conf.

If this option is not specified, but a global --userns-uid-map setting is supplied, settings from the global option will be used.

If none of --userns-uid-map-user, --userns-gid-map-group, or --userns-uid-map are specified, but --userns-gid-map is specified, the UID map will be set to use the same numeric values as the GID map.

--userns-gid-map mapping
Directly specifies a GID mapping which should be used to set ownership, at the filesytem level, on the container's contents. Commands run using buildah run will default to being run in their own user namespaces, configured using the UID and GID maps.

Entries in this map take the form of one or more triples of a starting in-container GID, a corresponding starting host-level GID, and the number of consecutive IDs which the map entry represents.

This option overrides the remap-gids setting in the options section of /etc/containers/storage.conf.

If this option is not specified, but a global --userns-gid-map setting is supplied, settings from the global option will be used.

If none of --userns-uid-map-user, --userns-gid-map-group, or --userns-gid-map are specified, but --userns-uid-map is specified, the GID map will be set to use the same numeric values as the UID map.

--userns-uid-map-user user
Specifies that a UID mapping which should be used to set ownership, at the filesytem level, on the container's contents, can be found in entries in the /etc/subuid file which correspond to the specified user. Commands run using buildah run will default to being run in their own user namespaces, configured using the UID and GID maps. If --userns-gid-map-group is specified, but --userns-uid-map-user is not specified, buildah will assume that the specified group name is also a suitable user name to use as the default setting for this option.
--userns-gid-map-group group
Specifies that a GID mapping which should be used to set ownership, at the filesytem level, on the container's contents, can be found in entries in the /etc/subgid file which correspond to the specified group. Commands run using buildah run will default to being run in their own user namespaces, configured using the UID and GID maps. If --userns-uid-map-user is specified, but --userns-gid-map-group is not specified, buildah will assume that the specified user name is also a suitable group name to use as the default setting for this option.
--uts how
Sets the configuration for UTS namespaces when the container is subsequently used for buildah run. The configured value can be "" (the empty string) or "container" to indicate that a new UTS namespace should be created, or it can be "host" to indicate that the UTS namespace in which buildah itself is being run should be reused, or it can be the path to a UTS namespace which is already in use by another process.
--volume, -v[=[HOST-DIR:CONTAINER-DIR[:OPTIONS]]]
Create a bind mount. If you specify, -v /HOST-DIR:/CONTAINER-DIR, Buildah
  bind mounts /HOST-DIR in the host to /CONTAINER-DIR in the Buildah
  container. The OPTIONS are a comma delimited list and can be:

The CONTAINER-DIR must be an absolute path such as /src/docs. The HOST-DIR must be an absolute path as well. Buildah bind-mounts the HOST-DIR to the path you specify. For example, if you supply /foo as the host path, Buildah copies the contents of /foo to the container filesystem on the host and bind mounts that into the container.

You can specify multiple  -v options to mount one or more mounts to a container.

You can add the :ro or :rw suffix to a volume to mount it read-only or read-write mode, respectively. By default, the volumes are mounted read-write. See examples.

Labeling systems like SELinux require that proper labels are placed on volume content mounted into a container. Without a label, the security system might prevent the processes running inside the container from using the content. By default, Buildah does not change the labels set by the OS.

To change a label in the container context, you can add either of two suffixes :z or :Z to the volume mount. These suffixes tell Buildah to relabel file objects on the shared volumes. The z option tells Buildah that two containers share the volume content. As a result, Buildah labels the content with a shared content label. Shared volume labels allow all containers to read/write content. The Z option tells Buildah to label the content with a private unshared label. Only the current container can use a private volume.

By default bind mounted volumes are private. That means any mounts done inside container will not be visible on the host and vice versa. This behavior can be changed by specifying a volume mount propagation property.

When the mount propagation policy is set to shared, any mounts completed inside the container on that volume will be visible to both the host and container. When the mount propagation policy is set to slave, one way mount propagation is enabled and any mounts completed on the host for that volume will be visible only inside of the container. To control the mount propagation property of the volume use the :[r]shared, :[r]slave, [r]private or [r]unbindablepropagation flag. The propagation property can be specified only for bind mounted volumes and not for internal volumes or named volumes. For mount propagation to work on the source mount point (the mount point where source dir is mounted on) it has to have the right propagation properties. For shared volumes, the source mount point has to be shared. And for slave volumes, the source mount has to be either shared or slave.

Use df <source-dir> to determine the source mount and then use findmnt -o TARGET,PROPAGATION <source-mount-dir> to determine propagation properties of source mount, if findmnt utility is not available, the source mount point can be determined by looking at the mount entry in /proc/self/mountinfo. Look at optional fields and see if any propagaion properties are specified. shared:X means the mount is shared, master:X means the mount is slave and if nothing is there that means the mount is private.

To change propagation properties of a mount point use the mount command. For example, to bind mount the source directory /foo do mount --bind /foo /foo and mount --make-private --make-shared /foo. This will convert /foo into a shared mount point.  The propagation properties of the source mount can be changed directly. For instance if / is the source mount for /foo, then use mount --make-shared / to convert / into a shared mount.

Example

buildah from --pull imagename

buildah from --pull docker://myregistry.example.com/imagename

buildah from docker-daemon:imagename:imagetag

buildah from --name mycontainer docker-archive:filename

buildah from oci-archive:filename

buildah from --name mycontainer dir:directoryname

buildah from --signature-policy /etc/containers/policy.json imagename

buildah from --pull-always --name "mycontainer" docker://myregistry.example.com/imagename

buildah from --tls-verify=false myregistry/myrepository/imagename:imagetag

buildah from --creds=myusername:mypassword --cert-dir  /auth myregistry/myrepository/imagename:imagetag

buildah from --authfile=/tmp/auths/myauths.json myregistry/myrepository/imagename:imagetag

buildah from --memory 40m --cpu-shares 2 --cpuset-cpus 0,2 --security-opt label=level:s0:c100,c200 myregistry/myrepository/imagename:imagetag

buildah from --ulimit nofile=1024:1028 --cgroup-parent /path/to/cgroup/parent myregistry/myrepository/imagename:imagetag

buildah from --volume /home/test:/myvol:ro,Z myregistry/myrepository/imagename:imagetag

Files

registries.conf (/etc/containers/registries.conf)

registries.conf is the configuration file which specifies which container registries should be consulted when completing image names which do not include a registry or domain portion.

See Also

buildah(1), buildah-pull(1), podman-login(1), docker-login(1), namespaces(7), pid_namespaces(7), policy.json(5), registries.conf(5), user_namespaces(7)

Referenced By

buildah(1), buildah-pull(1).

March 2017 buildah