bison man page

bison — GNU Project parser generator (yacc replacement)

Synopsis

bison [OPTION]... FILE

Description

Bison is a parser generator in the style of yacc(1). It should be upwardly compatible with input files designed for yacc.

Input files should follow the yacc convention of ending in .y. Unlike yacc, the generated files do not have fixed names, but instead use the prefix of the input file. Moreover, if you need to put C++ code in the input file, you can end his name by a C++-like extension (.ypp or .y++), then bison will follow your extension to name the output file (.cpp or .c++). For instance, a grammar description file named parse.yxx would produce the generated parser in a file named parse.tab.cxx, instead of yacc's y.tab.c or old Bison version's parse.tab.c.

This description of the options that can be given to bison is adapted from the node Invocation in the bison.texi manual, which should be taken as authoritative.

Bison supports both traditional single-letter options and mnemonic long option names. Long option names are indicated with -- instead of -. Abbreviations for option names are allowed as long as they are unique. When a long option takes an argument, like --file-prefix, connect the option name and the argument with =.

Generate a deterministic LR or generalized LR (GLR) parser employing LALR(1), IELR(1), or canonical LR(1) parser tables. IELR(1) and canonical LR(1) support is experimental.

Mandatory arguments to long options are mandatory for short options too. The same is true for optional arguments.

Operation modes

-h, --help
display this help and exit
-V, --version
output version information and exit
--print-localedir
output directory containing locale-dependent data
--print-datadir
output directory containing skeletons and XSLT
-y, --yacc
emulate POSIX Yacc
-W, --warnings[=CATEGORY]
report the warnings falling in CATEGORY
-f, --feature[=FEATURE]
activate miscellaneous features

Parser

-L, --language=LANGUAGE
specify the output programming language
-S, --skeleton=FILE
specify the skeleton to use
-t, --debug
instrument the parser for tracing same as '-Dparse.trace'
--locations
enable location support
-D, --define=NAME[=VALUE]
similar to '%define NAME "VALUE"'
-F, --force-define=NAME[=VALUE]
override '%define NAME "VALUE"'
-p, --name-prefix=PREFIX
prepend PREFIX to the external symbols deprecated by '-Dapi.prefix=PREFIX'
-l, --no-lines
don't generate '#line' directives
-k, --token-table
include a table of token names

Output

--defines[=FILE]
also produce a header file
-d
likewise but cannot specify FILE (for POSIX Yacc)
-r, --report=THINGS
also produce details on the automaton
--report-file=FILE
write report to FILE
-v, --verbose
same as '--report=state'
-b, --file-prefix=PREFIX
specify a PREFIX for output files
-o, --output=FILE
leave output to FILE
-g, --graph[=FILE]
also output a graph of the automaton
-x, --xml[=FILE]
also output an XML report of the automaton (the XML schema is experimental)

Warning categories include

'midrule-values'
unset or unused midrule values
'yacc'
incompatibilities with POSIX Yacc
'conflicts-sr'
S/R conflicts (enabled by default)
'conflicts-rr'
R/R conflicts (enabled by default)
'deprecated'
obsolete constructs
'empty-rule'
empty rules without %empty
'precedence'
useless precedence and associativity
'other'
all other warnings (enabled by default)
'all'
all the warnings except 'yacc'
'no-CATEGORY'
turn off warnings in CATEGORY
'none'
turn off all the warnings
'error[=CATEGORY]'
treat warnings as errors

THINGS is a list of comma separated words that can include

'state'
describe the states
'itemset'
complete the core item sets with their closure
'lookahead'
explicitly associate lookahead tokens to items
'solved'
describe shift/reduce conflicts solving
'all'
include all the above information
'none'
disable the report

FEATURE is a list of comma separated words that can include

'caret'
show errors with carets
'all'
all of the above
'none'
disable all of the above

Author

Written by Robert Corbett and Richard Stallman.

Reporting Bugs

Report bugs to <bug-bison@gnu.org>.
GNU Bison home page: <http://www.gnu.org/software/bison/>.
General help using GNU software: <http://www.gnu.org/gethelp/>.

Report translation bugs to <http://translationproject.org/team/>.
For complete documentation, run: info bison.

See Also

lex(1), flex(1), yacc(1).

Referenced By

bpfc(8), Parse::Yapp(3), suffixes(7), yapp(1).

January 2015 bison 3.0.4 User Commands