# bcal man page

bcal — Storage expression calculator.

## Synopsis

**bcal [-c N] [-f loc] [-s bytes] [expr] [N [unit]] [-b [expr]] [-m] [-d] [-h]**

## Description

**bcal** (Byte CALculator) is a command-line utility to help with numerical calculations and expressions involving data storage units, addressing, base conversion etc.

It invokes GNU **bc** for non-storage expressions. Alternatively, it can also invoke **calc** (http://www.isthe.com/chongo/tech/comp/calc/) which works better with expressions involving multiple bases. To use **calc**:

export BCAL_USE_CALC=1

**bcal** follows Ubuntu's standard unit conversion and notation policy:

https://wiki.ubuntu.com/UnitsPolicy

## Features

* evaluate arithmetic expressions involving storage units

* perform general purpose calculations (using bc or calc)

* convert to IEC/SI standard data storage units

* interactive mode with the last valid result stored for reuse

* show the address in bytes

* show address as LBA:OFFSET

* convert CHS to LBA and vice versa

* base conversion to binary, decimal and hex

* custom sector size, max heads/cylinder and max sectors/track

* minimal dependencies

## Operational Notes

**Interactive mode**:**bcal**enters the REPL mode if no arguments are provided. Storage unit conversion, base conversion and expression evaluation are supported in this mode. The last valid result is stored in the variable**r**.**Expression**: Expression passed as argument in one-shot mode must be within double quotes. Inner spaces are ignored. Supported operators: +, -, *, /, % and C bitwise operators (except ~ due to storage width dependency).**N [unit]**:*N*can be a decimal or '0x' prefixed hex value.*unit*can be B/KiB/MiB/GiB/TiB/kB/MB/GB/TB following Ubuntu policy. Default is byte. As all of these tokens are unique,*unit*is case-insensitive.**Numeric representation**: Decimal and hex are recognized in expressions and unit conversions. Binary is also recognized in other operations.**Syntax**: Prefix hex inputs with '0x', binary inputs with '0b'.**Precision**: 128 bits if*__uint128_t*is available or 64 bits for numerical conversions. Floating point operations use*long double*. Negative values in storage expressions are unsupported. Only 64-bit operating systems are supported.**Fractional bytes do not exist**, because they can't be addressed.**bcal**shows the floor value of non-integer*bytes*.**CHS and LBA syntax**:

- LBA: 'lLBA-MAX_HEAD-MAX_SECTOR' [NOTE: LBA starts with 'l' (case ignored)]

- CHS: 'cC-H-S-MAX_HEAD-MAX_SECTOR' [NOTE: CHS starts with 'c' (case ignored)]

- Format conversion arguments must be hyphen separated.

- Any unspecified value, including the one preceding the first '-' to the one following the last '-', is considered '0' (zero).

- Examples:

- 'c-50--0x12-' -> C = 0, H = 50, S = 0, MH = 0x12, MS = 0

- 'l50-0x12' -> LBA = 50, MH = 0x12, MS = 0**Default values**:

- sector size: 0x200 (512)

- max heads per cylinder: 0x10 (16)

- max sectors per track: 0x3f (63)**bc variables**:*scale*= 10,*ibase*= 10.**r**is synced and can be used in expressions.**bc**is not called in minimal output mode. To use**calc**instead of**bc**,*export BCAL_USE_CALC=1*.

## Options

**-c=***N*Show decimal, binary and hex representation of positive integer

*N*.**-f=***loc*Convert CHS to LBA or LBA to CHS.

*loc*is hyphen-separated representation of LBA or CHS. Please refer to the**Operational Notes**section for more details.**-s=***bytes*Sector size in bytes. Default value is 512.

**-b=***[expr]*Start in

**bc**mode. If expression is provided, evaluate in**bc**and quit.**-m**Show minimal output (e.g. decimal bytes).

**-d**Enable debug information and logs.

**-h**Show program help, storage sizes on the system and exit.

## Prompt Keys

**b**Toggle

**bc**mode.**r**Show result from last operation.

**s**Show sizes of storage types.

**?**Show prompt help.

**q, double Enter**Quit the program.

## Examples

- 1.
Evaluate arithmetic expression of storage units

$ bcal "(5kb+2mb)/3" $ bcal "5 tb / 12" $ bcal "2.5mb*3" $ bcal "(2giB * 2) / (2kib >> 2)"

- 2.
Convert storage capacity to other units and get address, LBA.

$ bcal 20140115 b $ bcal 0x1335053 B $ bcal 0xaabbcc kb $ bcal 0xdef GibNote that the units are case-insensitive.

- 3.
Convert storage capacity, set sector size to 4096 to calculate LBA.

$ bcal 0xaabbcc kb -s 4096

- 4.
Convert LBA to CHS.

$ bcal -f l500 $ bcal -f l0x600-18-0x7e $ bcal -f l0x300-0x12-0x7e

- 5.
Convert CHS to LBA.

$ bcal -f c10-10-10 $ bcal -f c0x10-0x10-0x10 $ bcal -f c0x10-10-2-0x12 $ bcal -f c-10-2-0x12 $ bcal -f c0x10-10--0x12

- 6.
Show binary, decimal and hex representations of a number.

$ bcal -c 20140115 $ bcal -c 0b1001100110101000001010011 $ bcal -c 0x1335053 bcal> c 20140115 // Interactive mode

- 7.
Invoke

*bc*.

$ bcal -b '3.5 * 2.1 + 5.7' bcal> b // Interactive mode bc vars: scale = 10, ibase = 10, last = r bc> 3.5 * 2.1 + 5.7

## Authors

Arun Prakash Jana <engineerarun@gmail.com>

## Home

## Reporting Bugs

## License

Copyright © 2016 Arun Prakash Jana <engineerarun@gmail.com>

License GPLv3+: GNU GPL version 3 or later <http://gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html>.

This is free software: you are free to change and redistribute it. There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.