apptainer-build - Man Page

Build an Apptainer image


apptainer build [local options...]  



When Apptainer builds the container, output can be one of a few formats:

  default:    The compressed Apptainer read only image format (default)
  sandbox:    This is a read-write container within a directory structure

note: It is a common workflow to use the "sandbox" mode for development of the
 container, and then build it as a default Apptainer image for production
 use. The default format is immutable.


The build spec target is a definition (def) file, local image, or URI that can
 be used to create an Apptainer container. Several different local target
 formats exist:

  def file  : This is a recipe for building a container (examples below)
  directory:  A directory structure containing a (ch)root file system
  image:      A local image on your machine (will convert to sif if
              it is legacy format)

Targets can also be remote and defined by a URI of the following formats:

  library://  an image library (no default)
  docker://   a Docker/OCI registry (default Docker Hub)
  shub://     an Apptainer registry (default Singularity Hub)
  oras://     an OCI registry that holds SIF files using ORAS

Temporary files:

The location used for temporary directories defaults to '/tmp' but
 can be overridden by the TMPDIR environment variable, and that can be
 overridden by the APPTAINER_TMPDIR environment variable.  The
 temporary directory used during a build must be on a filesystem that
 has enough space to hold the entire container image, uncompressed,
 including any temporary files that are created and later removed
 during the build. You may need to set APPTAINER_TMPDIR or TMPDIR when
 building a large container on a system that has a small /tmp filesystem.


-B, --bind=[] a user-bind path specification. spec has the format src[:dest[:opts]],where src and dest are outside and inside paths. If dest is not given,it is set equal to src. Mount options ('opts') may be specified as 'ro'(read-only) or 'rw' (read/write, which is the default).Multiple bind paths can be given by a comma separated list.

--build-arg=[] defines variable=value to replace {{ variable }} entries in build definition file

--build-arg-file="" specifies a file containing variable=value lines to replace '{{ variable }}' with value in build definition files

--disable-cache[=false] do not use cache or create cache

--docker-host="" specify a custom Docker daemon host

--docker-login[=false] login to a Docker Repository interactively

-e, --encrypt[=false] build an image with an encrypted file system

-f, --fakeroot[=false] build with the appearance of running as root (default when building from a definition file unprivileged)

--fix-perms[=false] ensure owner has rwX permissions on all container content for oci/docker sources

-F, --force[=false] overwrite an image file if it exists

-h, --help[=false] help for build

--json[=false] interpret build definition as JSON

--library="" container Library URL

--mount=[] a mount specification e.g. 'type=bind,source=/opt,destination=/hostopt'.

--no-cleanup[=false] do NOT clean up bundle after failed build, can be helpful for debugging

--no-https[=false] use http instead of https for docker:// oras:// and library:///... URIs

-T, --notest[=false] build without running tests in %test section

--nv[=false] inject host Nvidia libraries during build for post and test sections

--nvccli[=false] use nvidia-container-cli for GPU setup (experimental)

--passphrase[=false] prompt for an encryption passphrase

--pem-path="" enter an path to a PEM formatted RSA key for an encrypted container

--rocm[=false] inject host Rocm libraries during build for post and test sections

-s, --sandbox[=false] build image as sandbox format (chroot directory structure)

--section=[all] only run specific section(s) of deffile (setup, post, files, environment, test, labels, none)

-u, --update[=false] run definition over existing container (skips header)

--userns[=false] build without using setuid even if available

--warn-unused-build-args[=false] shows warning instead of fatal message when build args are not exact matched

--writable-tmpfs[=false] during the %test section, makes the file system accessible as read-write with non persistent data (with overlay support only)



          Bootstrap: library
          From: debian:9

          Bootstrap: docker
          From: tensorflow/tensorflow:latest
          IncludeCmd: yes # Use the CMD as runscript instead of ENTRYPOINT

      Singularity Hub:
          Bootstrap: shub
          From: singularityhub/centos

          Bootstrap: yum
          OSVersion: 7
          Include: yum

          Bootstrap: zypper # on SLE system registration of build host is used
          Include: zypper
          Bootstrap: zypper
          Include: zypper

          Bootstrap: debootstrap
          OSVersion: trusty

      Local Image:
          Bootstrap: localimage
          From: /home/dave/starter.img

          Bootstrap: scratch # Populate the container with a minimal rootfs in %setup


  The following sections are presented in the order of processing, with the exception
  that labels and environment can also be manipulated in %post.

          echo "This is a scriptlet that will be executed on the host, as root before"
          echo "the container has been bootstrapped. This section is not commonly used."

          echo "This is a scriptlet that will be executed on the host, as root, after"
          echo "the container has been bootstrapped. To install things into the container"
          echo "reference the file system location with $APPTAINER_ROOTFS."

          /path/on/host/file.txt /path/on/container/file.txt
          relative_file.txt /path/on/container/relative_file.txt

          echo "This scriptlet section will be executed from within the container after"
          echo "the bootstrap/base has been created and setup."

          export HAN VADER LUKE

          echo "Define any test commands that should be executed after container has been"
          echo "built. This scriptlet will be executed from within the running container"
          echo "as the root user. Pay attention to the exit/return value of this scriptlet"
          echo "as any non-zero exit code will be assumed as failure."
          exit 0

          echo "Define actions for the container to be executed with the run command or"
          echo "when container is executed."

          echo "Define actions for container to perform when started as an instance."

          HELLO MOTO
          KEY VALUE

          This is a text file to be displayed with the run-help command.


      Build a sif file from an Apptainer recipe file:
          $ apptainer build /tmp/debian0.sif /path/to/debian.def

      Build a sif image from the Library:
          $ apptainer build /tmp/debian1.sif library://debian:latest

      Build a base sandbox from DockerHub, make changes to it, then build sif
          $ apptainer build --sandbox /tmp/debian docker://debian:latest
          $ apptainer exec --writable /tmp/debian apt-get install python
          $ apptainer build /tmp/debian2.sif /tmp/debian

See Also



13-Mar-2024 Auto generated by spf13/cobra

Referenced By


Mar 2024 Auto generated by spf13/cobra