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aime - Man Page

interpret programs


aime [Options] PROGRAM [TYPE NAME VALUE]...


aime executes PROGRAM.  The TYPE NAME VALUE definitions introduce program accessible constants.  TYPE may be one of cardinal (integral, positive), integer (integral), real (real) and text (string).


-B,  --reference-bail-out DUE

Stop reference tracing when determining reachability after DUE examined links.  The determination is attempted every time a reference is removed.  The objects deemed unreachable are destroyed.  The objects for which the determination cannot be made in DUE reference examinations are recorded and their reachability status is determined later in a consolidated fashion.  A zero value for DUE instructs aime to make the determination right away and no matter how many links need to be examined.  A non zero value makes the transition from proper immediate disposal to consolidated disposal.  The default value for DUE is 4.

-D,  --reference-bail-set SET

Clear bailed out references when they are SET many (the reachability of objects recorded for later determination is triggered when their number reaches SET).

-S,  --initial INDEX

Start numbering lines when error reporting from INDEX.  Default is 1.

-W,  --cpp COMMAND

Set source preprocessing command to COMMAND.  The command reads the standard input and writes standard output.  The default value is cpp. Alternatives known to work include gcc -E - and mcpp.


Make program arguments available as argc() / argv() / args(). The program arguments will not be interpreted as TYPE NAME VALUE triplets.  See Miscellaneous Functions for more information.


Execute the PROGRAM program instead the program read from the PROGRAM file.

-f,  --framed

Expand function calls in a hierarchical fashion.  Faster than the default sequenced execution, the stack based execution cannot execute programs if the call stack gets too deep.

-p,  --preprocess

Run source through the C preprocessor.

Comments in preprocessed sources should follow the preprocessor comment syntax.

Source preprocessing is as of yet experimental.  The preprocessor error messages are dissimilar to the aime error messages.

-s,  --sequenced

Execute program step by step, flattening the call hierarchy.  Slightly slower than the stack based execution, the sequenced execution can execute programs no matter how deep the call stack gets.  Default.


Do not fail when child processes exit with a code other than 0.  Does not apply to processes waited via aime library routines, like xs_spend.


List available functions and exit with a status code indicating success.


Print a usage message and exit with a status code indicating success.


Print version information on standard output then exit.

Program Syntax

The interpreted syntax is much resembling the C syntax.  It allows for prefix unary and common syntax binary operators, functions and variables.  The supported types include the immediate cardinal (integral, positive), integer (integral), real (real) and text (string), along the referable data (byte array), date (calendar date), file (UNIX file), list (heterogenous sequence), record (string key heterogenous associate table), time (duration), etc.  void is allowed for function type.

The C if, else, while, do while and break statements are supported, their syntax and semantics being pretty much the same as in C.  An extra elif statement is borrowed from the C preprocessor, yet its syntax is C inspired.  The for statement is for collection traversals, with its first iterator variable always indicating the position and the optional second the data in that position.  The opening and closing block braces are mandatory.  The declarations must precede statements within a block.  The variable initialization is disallowed.

A more formal syntax definition is:

blockdeclarations_section statements_section

| declarations_line declarations_section

declarations_linetype name subsequent_name ;

| , name subsequent_name


| statement_line statements_section


| expression ;

| do { break_block } while ( expression ) ;

| if ( expression ) { block } elif_block_list else_block

| for ( variable1 [variable2] in collection ) { break_block }

| while ( expression ) { break_block }


| elif_block elif_block_list

elif_blockelif ( expression ) { block }

| else { block }

break_blockdeclarations_section break_statements_section

| break_statement_line break_statements_section

break_statement_linebreak ;

| statement_line

Functions and variables do not share the same name space, thus using a function name for a variable is allowed.  The break, do, elif, if, else and while keywords and the cardinal, integer, real and text type names are however restricted for variable naming.

The expression syntax is much resembling the C expression syntax.

Most of prefix unary and common syntax binary C operators are supported (including unary !, +, - and ~ and binary *, /, %, +, -, <<, >>, <, >, <=, >=, !=, ==, &, ^, |, &&, ||, =, +=, -=, *=, /=, %=, &=, ^=, |=, <<= and >>=), the semantics and precedence being the same or at least very close to those of their C counterparts.

A secondary syntax allows for functions.  Function definition syntax is much the C syntax.  One main function, returning integer and having a void argument list, is expected.

The formal syntax definition is:

programfunction subsequent_function

| declaration

definitionvoid name ( arguments_list ) { block }

| type_other_than_void name ( arguments_list ) { block_return }


| ...

| argument subsequent_argument

| argument subsequent_argument , ...

argumenttype reference_class name
block_returnblock return expression ;
declarationtype name ( positions_list ) ;

| ...

| position subsequent_position

| position subsequent_position , ...

positiontype reference_class

| type reference_class name


| &


| , position subsequent_position


| , argument subsequent_argument


| function subsequent_function

Functions may return no value, integer and real only (i.e. the return type of functions may only be one of cardinal, integer, real and void).

Output Functions

Standard output formatting functions include:

void o_byte(integer c);

outputs the c code character

void o_flush(void);

flushes standard output

void o_integer(integer m);

outputs m

void o_real(integer d, real x);

outputs x with no more than d digits if d is not less than 0, does nothing otherwise

void o_text(text s);

outputs s

Error Functions

Standard error formatting functions include:

void v_byte(integer c);

outputs the c code character

void v_flush(void);

flushes standard error

void v_integer(integer m);

outputs m

void v_real(integer d, real x);

outputs x with no more than d digits if d is not less than 0, does nothing otherwise

void v_text(text s);

outputs s

Miscellaneous Functions

Interpreter specific functions:

integer argc(void);

is the number of program arguments.

text argv(integer i);

is the i indexed program argument, the name of the program being the first.  Negative indices are interpreted with respect to the end of arguments list.

list args(integer i);

is a new list of the program arguments, starting with the i indexed one. A 0 i gives all the arguments, including the program name.  A 1 i has the latter skipped.

void exit(integer e);

terminates program execution, tells aime to exit e.

The argc(), argv(), args() functions are only available if so requested, via the -a option.


aime waits for the child processes started through the process library, etc.

Return Value

aime returns non zero for non successful program execution.  For successful program execution aime returns the value of the exit argument if exit was called,  the return of main for procedural programs and zero for non procedural programs otherwise.

See Also

cpp(1), express17(1), gcc(1), mcpp(1)


Ciprian Niculescu


May 2019