R man page

R — a language for data analysis and graphics


R [options] [< infile] [> outfile]
R CMD command [arguments]


Start R, a system for statistical computation and graphics, with the specified options, or invoke an R tool via the 'R CMD' interface.

R is a language which bears a passing resemblance to the S language developed at AT&T Bell Laboratories. It provides support for a variety of statistical and graphical analyses. R is a true computer language which contains a number of control-flow constructions for iteration and alternation. It allows users to add additional functionality by defining new functions.

On systems which have the GNU readline(3) library, R will maintain a command history, so that commands can be recalled, edited and re-executed.


Most options control what happens at the beginning and at the end of an R session, in particular which files are being read and written, and how much memory is reserved for the R process.

-h, --help
Print short help message and exit
Print version info and exit
Specify encoding to be used for stdin
Print path to R home directory and exit
Do save workspace at the end of the session
Don't save it
Don't read the site and user environment files
Don't read the site-wide Rprofile
Don't read the user R profile
Do restore previously saved objects at startup
Don't restore previously saved objects
Don't restore the R history file
Don't restore anything
Combine --no-save, --no-restore, --no-site-file, --no-init-file and --no-environ
Don't use readline for command-line editing
Set max size of protect stack to N
Set min number of fixed size obj's ("cons cells") to N
Set vector heap minimum to N bytes; '4M' = 4 MegaB
-q, --quiet
Don't print startup message
Same as --quiet
Make R run as quietly as possible
Force an interactive session
Print more information about progress
-d, --debugger=NAME
Run R through debugger NAME
Pass ARGS as arguments to the debugger
-g TYPE, --gui=TYPE
Use TYPE as GUI; possible values are 'X11' (default) and 'Tk'.
Specify a sub-architecture
Skip the rest of the command line
-f FILE, --file=FILE
Take input from 'FILE'
Execute 'EXPR' and exit

FILE may contain spaces but not shell metacharacters.


Run R in batch mode
Compile files for use with R
Build shared library for dynamic loading
Install add-on packages
Remove add-on packages
Build add-on packages
Check add-on packages
Front-end for creating executable programs
Post-process R profiling files
Convert Rd format to various other formats
Convert Rd format to PDF
Convert Rd format to pretty text
Extract S/R code from Sweave documentation
Process Sweave documentation
Diff R output ignoring headers etc
Obtain configuration information about R
Update the Java configuration variables
Create Emacs-style tag files from C, R, and Rd files

Please use 'R CMD command --help' to obtain further information about the usage of 'command'.

Options --arch, --no-environ, --no-init-file, --no-site-file and --vanilla can be placed between R and CMD, to apply to R processes run by 'command'

Reporting Bugs

Report bugs at bugs.r-project.org

See Also

The full documentation for R is provided by a collection of Texinfo manuals and individual help for R objects which is also available on-line.

Start R and type ?topic at the R prompt to obtain on-line information for `topic'.

If the processed manuals have been installed they will be available as DVI and/or PDF files in the doc/manual subdirectory of the documentation directory tree (default `R RHOME`).

If the info program and the R manuals are installed on your system, typing info -f R-intro, info -f R-data, info -f R-exts, info -f R-FAQ, info -f R-lang and info -f R-ints should give you access to “An Introduction to R” (the basic manual), the “R Data Import/Export” Guide, the “R Extension Writer's Guide”, the “R FAQ”, the “The R Language Definition”, and the “R Internals”.

Referenced By

rkward(1), Rscript(1).

Explore man page connections for R(1).

R 3.3.1 August 2016