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R - Man Page

a language for data analysis and graphics


R [options] [< infile] [> outfile]
R CMD command [arguments]


Start R, a system for statistical computation and graphics, with the specified options, or invoke an R tool via the 'R CMD' interface.

R is a language which bears a passing resemblance to the S language developed at AT&T Bell Laboratories.  It provides support for a variety of statistical and graphical analyses.  R is a true computer language which contains a number of control-flow constructions for iteration and alternation.  It allows users to add additional functionality by defining new functions.

On systems which have the GNU readline(3) library, R will maintain a command history, so that commands can be recalled, edited and re-executed.


Most options control what happens at the beginning and at the end of an R session, in particular which files are being read and written, and how much memory is reserved for the R process.

-h,  --help

Print short help message and exit


Print version info and exit


Specify encoding to be used for stdin


Print path to R home directory and exit


Do save workspace at the end of the session


Don't save it


Don't read the site and user environment files


Don't read the site-wide Rprofile


Don't read the user R profile


Do restore previously saved objects at startup


Don't restore previously saved objects


Don't restore the R history file


Don't restore anything


Combine --no-save, --no-restore, --no-site-file, --no-init-file and --no-environ


Don't use readline for command-line editing


Set max number of connections to N


Set max size of protect stack to N


Set min number of fixed size obj's ("cons cells") to N


Set vector heap minimum to N bytes; '4M' = 4 MegaB

-q,  --quiet

Don't print startup message


Same as --quiet

-s,  --no-echo

Make R run as quietly as possible


Force an interactive session


Print more information about progress

-d,  --debugger=NAME

Run R through debugger NAME


Pass ARGS as arguments to the debugger

-g TYPE, --gui=TYPE

Use TYPE as GUI; possible values are 'X11' (default) and 'Tk'.


Specify a sub-architecture


Skip the rest of the command line

-f FILE, --file=FILE

Take input from 'FILE'


Execute 'EXPR' and exit

FILE may contain spaces but not shell metacharacters.



Run R in batch mode


Compile files for use with R


Build shared library for dynamic loading


Install add-on packages


Remove add-on packages


Build add-on packages


Check add-on packages


Front-end for creating executable programs


Post-process R profiling files


Convert Rd format to various other formats


Convert Rd format to PDF


Convert Rd format to pretty text


Extract S/R code from Sweave documentation


Process Sweave documentation


Diff R output ignoring headers etc


Obtain configuration information about R


Update the Java configuration variables


Create Emacs-style tag files from C, R, and Rd files

Please use 'R CMD command --help' to obtain further information about the usage of 'command'.

Options --arch, --no-environ, --no-init-file, --no-site-file and --vanilla can be placed between R and CMD, to apply to R processes run by 'command'

Reporting Bugs

Report bugs at <https://bugs.R-project.org>.

See Also

The full documentation for R is provided by a collection of Texinfo manuals and individual help for R objects which is also available on-line.

Start R and type ?topic at the R prompt to obtain on-line information for `topic'.

If the processed manuals have been installed they will be available as DVI and/or PDF files in the doc/manual subdirectory of the documentation directory tree (default `R RHOME`).

If the info program and the R manuals are installed on your system, typing  info -f R-intro, info -f R-data,  info -f R-exts, info -f R-FAQ,  info -f R-lang and info -f R-ints should give you access to “An Introduction to R” (the basic manual), the “R Data Import/Export” Guide, the “R Extension Writer's Guide”, the “R FAQ”, the “The R Language Definition”, and the “R Internals”.

Referenced By


April 2024 R 4.4.0 FSF