PDL::PP-Inline man page

Inline::Pdlpp — Write PDL Subroutines inline with PDL::PP

Description

"Inline::Pdlpp" is a module that allows you to write PDL subroutines in the PDL::PP style. The big benefit compared to plain "PDL::PP" is that you can write these definitions inline in any old perl script (without the normal hassle of creating Makefiles, building, etc). Since version 0.30 the Inline module supports multiple programming languages and each language has its own support module. This document describes how to use Inline with PDL::PP (or rather, it will once these docs are complete ";)".

For more information on Inline in general, see Inline.

Some example scripts demonstrating "Inline::Pdlpp" usage can be found in the Example/InlinePdlpp directory.

"Inline::Pdlpp" is a subclass of Inline::C. Most Kudos goes to Brian I.

Usage

You never actually use "Inline::Pdlpp" directly. It is just a support module for using "Inline.pm" with "PDL::PP". So the usage is always:

use Inline Pdlpp => ...;

or

bind Inline Pdlpp => ...;

Examples

Pending availability of full docs a few quick examples that illustrate typical usage.

A simple example

# example script inlpp.pl
use PDL; # must be called before (!) 'use Inline Pdlpp' calls
use Inline Pdlpp; # the actual code is in the __Pdlpp__ block below
$a = sequence 10;
print $a->inc,"\n";
print $a->inc->dummy(1,10)->tcumul,"\n";
__DATA__
__Pdlpp__
pp_def('inc',
       Pars => 'i();[o] o()',
       Code => '$o() = $i() + 1;',
      );
pp_def('tcumul',
       Pars => 'in(n);[o] mul()',
       Code => '$mul() = 1;
                loop(n) %{
                  $mul() *= $in();
                %}',
);
# end example script

If you call this script it should generate output similar to this:

prompt> perl inlpp.pl
Inline running PDL::PP version 2.2...
[1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10]
[3628800 3628800 3628800 3628800 3628800 3628800 3628800 3628800 3628800 3628800]

Usage of "Inline::Pdlpp" in general is similar to "Inline::C". In the absence of full docs for "Inline::Pdlpp" you might want to compare Inline::C.

Code that uses external libraries, etc

The script below is somewhat more complicated in that it uses code from an external library (here from Numerical Recipes). All the relevant information regarding include files, libraries and boot code is specified in a config call to "Inline". For more experienced Perl hackers it might be helpful to know that the format is similar to that used with ExtUtils::MakeMaker. The keywords are largely equivalent to those used with "Inline::C". Please see below for further details on the usage of "Inc", "Libs", "Auto_include" and "Boot".

use PDL; # this must be called before (!) 'use Inline Pdlpp' calls
use Inline Pdlpp => Config =>
  INC => "-I$ENV{HOME}/include",
  LIBS => "-L$ENV{HOME}/lib -lnr -lm",
  # code to be included in the generated XS
  AUTO_INCLUDE => <<'EOINC',
#include <math.h>
#include "nr.h"    /* for poidev */
#include "nrutil.h"  /* for err_handler */
static void nr_barf(char *err_txt)
{
  fprintf(stderr,"Now calling croak...\n");
  croak("NR runtime error: %s",err_txt);
}
EOINC
# install our error handler when loading the Inline::Pdlpp code
BOOT => 'set_nr_err_handler(nr_barf);';
use Inline Pdlpp; # the actual code is in the __Pdlpp__ block below
$a = zeroes(10) + 30;;
print $a->poidev(5),"\n";
__DATA__
__Pdlpp__
pp_def('poidev',
        Pars => 'xm(); [o] pd()',
        GenericTypes => [L,F,D],
        OtherPars => 'long idum',
        Code => '$pd() = poidev((float) $xm(), &$COMP(idum));',
);

Pdlpp Configuration Options

For information on how to specify Inline configuration options, see Inline. This section describes each of the configuration options available for Pdlpp. Most of the options correspond either to MakeMaker or XS options of the same name. See ExtUtils::MakeMaker and perlxs.

Auto_include

Specifies extra statements to automatically included. They will be added onto the defaults. A newline char will be automatically added. Does essentially the same as a call to "pp_addhdr". For short bits of code "Auto_include" is probably syntactically nicer.

use Inline Pdlpp => Config => AUTO_INCLUDE => '#include "yourheader.h"';

Bless

Same as "pp_bless" command. Specifies the package (i.e. class) to which your new pp_defed methods will be added. Defaults to "PDL" if omitted.

use Inline Pdlpp => Config => BLESS => 'PDL::Complex';

Boot

Specifies C code to be executed in the XS Boot section. Corresponds to the XS parameter. Does the same as the "pp_add_boot" command. Often used to execute code only once at load time of the module, e.g. a library initialization call.

Cc

Specify which compiler to use.

Ccflags

Specify extra compiler flags.

Inc

Specifies an include path to use. Corresponds to the MakeMaker parameter.

use Inline Pdlpp => Config => INC => '-I/inc/path';

Ld

Specify which linker to use.

Lddlflags

Specify which linker flags to use.

NOTE: These flags will completely override the existing flags, instead of just adding to them. So if you need to use those too, you must respecify them here.

Libs

Specifies external libraries that should be linked into your code. Corresponds to the MakeMaker parameter.

use Inline Pdlpp => Config => LIBS => '-lyourlib';

or

use Inline Pdlpp => Config => LIBS => '-L/your/path -lyourlib';

Make

Specify the name of the 'make' utility to use.

Myextlib

Specifies a user compiled object that should be linked in. Corresponds to the MakeMaker parameter.

use Inline Pdlpp => Config => MYEXTLIB => '/your/path/yourmodule.so';

Optimize

This controls the MakeMaker Optimize setting. By setting this value to '-g', you can turn on debugging support for your Inline extensions. This will allow you to be able to set breakpoints in your C code using a debugger like gdb.

Typemaps

Specifies extra typemap files to use. Corresponds to the MakeMaker parameter.

use Inline Pdlpp => Config => TYPEMAPS => '/your/path/typemap';

Noisy

Show the output of any compilations going on behind the scenes. Turns on "BUILD_NOISY" in Inline::C.

Bugs

“do”ing inline scripts

Beware that there is a problem when you use the __DATA__ keyword style of Inline definition and want to "do" your script containing inlined code. For example

  # myscript.pl contains inlined code
  # in the __DATA__ section
  perl -e 'do "myscript.pl";'
One or more DATA sections were not processed by Inline.

According to Brian Ingerson (of Inline fame) the workaround is to include an "Inline->init" call in your script, e.g.

use PDL;
use Inline Pdlpp;
Inline->init;
# perl code
__DATA__
__Pdlpp__
# pp code

“PDL::NiceSlice” and “Inline::Pdlpp”

There is currently an undesired interaction between PDL::NiceSlice and "Inline::Pdlpp". Since PP code generally contains expressions of the type "$var()" (to access piddles, etc) PDL::NiceSlice recognizes those incorrectly as slice expressions and does its substitutions. For the moment (until hopefully the parser can deal with that) it is best to explicitly switch PDL::NiceSlice off before the section of inlined Pdlpp code. For example:

use PDL::NiceSlice;
use Inline::Pdlpp;
$a = sequence 10;
$a(0:3)++;
$a->inc;
no PDL::NiceSlice;
__DATA__
__C__
ppdef (...); # your full pp definition here

Acknowledgements

Brian Ingerson for creating the Inline infrastructure.

Author

Christian Soeller <soellermail@excite.com>

See Also

PDL

PDL::PP

Inline

Inline::C

Info

2016-10-11 perl v5.24.0 User Contributed Perl Documentation